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Chapter 12

Chapter 12 – Development.docx

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Western University
Psychology 1000
Mark Cole

Chapter 12 – Development Developmental Psychology: Issues and Methods 1. Nature and Nurture – hereditary and environmental 2. Critical and Sensitive Periods - Critical Period = age range in which certain experiences MUST occur for development to normally proceed - Sensitive Period = age range where certain experiences must occur, but if they don’t, they may occur at another time for normal development 3. Continuity Versus Discontinuity – gradual or progressing through stages 4. Stability Versus Change – characteristics Cross-sectional Design – data from many age groups are collected quickly Longitudinal Design – repeatedly test the same thing as it grows Sequential Design – combines the cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches for the most comprehensive test Prenatal Development 1. Germinal Stage: - First 2 weeks of development - One sperm fertilizes an egg to create a zygote - Cell division splits up the zygote into a mass of cells - It the attaches to the uterus about 10-14 days after conception 2. Embryonic Stage: - From the 2 week until the 8 weekth - The mass cells are now turned into a embryo - The placenta and umbilical cord now develop - The placenta is located on the uterus wall and contains membranes that allow nutrients to pass onto the embryo through the umbilical cord and waste away from the embryo - The embryonic cells divide rapidly and become specialized - Body organs and systems begin to form - The heart is beating, the brain is forming, facial features are forming, and the eyes are recognized 3. Fetal Stage: - From the 9 week until birth - Muscles become stronger and body systems continue to grow and develop - At 24 weeks the eyes open - At 28 weeks the fetus can survive outside the mothers womb Genetics and Sex Determination - A female egg and male sperm each have 23 chromosomes rd - The 23 pair of chromosomes determine the sex - Females have two XX chromosomes and males have an XY combo - The males chromosomes determine the sex of the fetus - TDF (testis determining factor gene) – triggers male sexual development if an XY are paired together o The testes start to produce a sex hormone called androgens - This occurs at 6-8 weeks after conception Environmental Influences Teratogens – environmental agents that cause abnormal prenatal development Rubella – if affects the fetus early on, it can cause blindness, deafness, heart defects, and mental retardation STDs – can cause brain damage, blindness, and deafness o Syphilis – about 25% of babies whose mothers have syphilis die HIV – about 25% of babies whose mothers have HIV are born with HIV as well Mercury, lead, and radiation – produce birth defects FAS (fetal alcohol syndrome) – can cause facial abnormalities, small, malfunctioned brains, poor adaptation functions, etc. Nicotine and Smoking – increases risk of miscarriage, premature birth, and low birth weight Second-hand Smoke – increases low birth weight and chance of respiratory infections Heroine and Cocaine – many babies are born addicted and experience withdrawal - Fetal movements increase when loud sounds or music are played when they are in the womb - At 27 weeks, fetal body movements were first elicited - At 29 weeks, heart rate accelerations were elicited - Fetuses also stop responding to repeated presentations and sounds = short- term memory - If they hear repeated sounds, they will also remember them in the long-term when they are born (certain tv shows will calm them down when they are born if they are heard through the womb) Infancy and Childhood Preferential Looking Procedure – Robert Fantz [laced infants on their backs and showed them two different images at the same time - He found that they focused on the more complex, interesting images - They will look longer at images with wider stripes - Their threshold is about 20/800 - Newborns readily turn toward off-centered auditory, such as rattles, and tactile, touching of the cheek, targets and odors - Infants most importantly gravitate towards their mothers appearance, voice, and touch since they provide them food, warmth, and social stimulation Newborn Learning - Babies distinguish familiar faces within hours after birth - Visual Habituation Procedure – when the same stimulus is presented repeatedly until infants start to look away/not look at all o When a novel stimulus is presented, infants look longer than if the stimulus were familiar - Auditory Habituation Procedure – when the same sound is presented repeatedly until infants stop reacting o Infants quickly start to associate sounds and obj
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