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Chapter 14

Chapter 14 – Personality.docx

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Psychology 1000
Mark Cole

Chapter 14 – Personality Personality – distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that characterize a person’s responses to life situations - Personality traits characterize individuals customary ways of responding to their world 1. Components of Identity – distinguish that person from other people 2. Perceived Internal Cause – caused internally rather than by the environment 3. Perceived Organization and Structure – the behaviors “fit together” in a meaningful way - Inner personality guides our behaviors Freud’s Psychoanalytical Theory - He attended medical school with the intentions of becoming a medical researcher, focusing in brain functioning - Rather, worked with Jean Charcot treating patients who suffered from a disorder o Conversion hysteria: physical symptoms such as paralysis and blindness appear suddenly and with no physical cause - Freud was convinced their symptoms were related to painful memories and feelings that have been repressed or pushed out of awareness - When the patients were able to re-experience these memories, their physical symptoms disappeared or decreased Psychic Energy – powers the mind and constantly presses for either direct or indirect release - Personality is an energy system - Out instinctual drives generate psychic energy - It can be discharged directly (such as sexual activity) or indirectly (such as fantasies) Conscious Mind – mental events that we are presently aware of Preconscious Mind – memories, thoughts, feelings, and images that we are unaware of at the moment, but able to bring back into conscious thought when triggered Unconscious Mind – wishes, feelings, and impulses that lie beyond our awareness - Through dreams, slips of the tongue, or some disguised behavior do they reveal themselves Structure of Personality: 1. Id - No direct contact with reality - Functions in a totally irrelevant manner - Pleasure Principle = seeks immediate gratification or release, regardless of rational considerations - It WANTS and TAKES no matter what 2. Ego - Functions primarily at a conscious level - Reality Principle = tests reality to decide when and under what circumstances the Id can safely discharge its needs - Strives to delay gratification until conditions are safe and appropriate 3. Superego - Moral arm of the personality - Usually developed by age 4-5 - Based on values, ideals of society, right VS wrong, etc - Learn through identification with parents or training - Strives to block gratification permanently and put realistic goals ahead of moralistic goals Conflict, Anxiety, and Defense: Defense Mechanisms – when realistic strategies are ineffective in reducing anxiety and the ego must resort to defense mechanisms - They deny or distort reality - Permit release of impulses from the Id 1. Repression - When the ego uses energy to prevent negative memories, feelings, or impulses from entering consciousness - Can be expressed directly or indirectly - Example) someone who was sexually abused as a child 2. Sublimation - Completely masking the forbidden underlying impulses - The impulses are used for socially acceptable behaviors - Example) someone with strong hostile impulses becomes an investigative reporter 3. Denial - When someone refuses to acknowledge anxiety-arousing aspects (denial) - Example) someone who is told they have cancer and refuses to do anything about it 4. Displacement - A dangerous or unacceptable impulse is repressed and then directed to something else (substitute) - Example) someone who is harassed by his boss may be fine at work but abuse his wife at home 5. Intellectualization - Emotions with an upsetting event are repressed and is dealt with an intellectually interesting event - Example) someone who was rejected by their lover and then talks about the “interesting unpredictability of love relationships” 6. Projection - An unacceptable impulse is repressed and put onto other people - Example) a women who wants to have an affair keeps accusing her husband of being unfaithful 7. Rationalization - Someone makes up a false but believable explanation or excuse for their bad behavior - Example) someone caught cheating on a test blames the professor for making an unfair and hard test 8. Reaction Formation - An anxiety-arousing impulse is repressed and its psychic energy releases in the opposite behavior - Example) a mother who doesn’t like her kids becomes overly protective of them Psychosexual Development: - Fixation = a state of arrested psychosexual development in which instincts are focused on a particular psychic theme 1. Oral - Ages 0 - 2 - Erogenous zone = mouth - Breast feeding 2. Anal - Ages 2 – 3 - Erogenous zone = anus - Potty training 3. Phallic - Ages 4 – 6 - Erogenous zone = genitals - Playing with private parts 4. Latency - Ages 7 – puberty - Erogenous zone = none - Developing social relationships 5. Genital - Puberty + - Erogenous zone = genitals - Developing sexual relationships Research/Evaluations of Psychoanalytical Theory: - Freud tested using case studies and clinical observations - Psychosexual development was the most controversial part of Freud’s theory - Most modern psychologists do not believe that clinical observations are sufficient proof of a theory - Often criticized because it is hard to test and prove (repressed thoughts are hard to monitor on demand) - Does show that unconscious mental and emotional phenomena do indeed occur and can have powerful affects Neoanalytical – those who disagree with certain aspects of Freud’s thinking and came up with their own theory - They believed Freud didn’t give social and cultural factors enough recognition in development of personality (too much aggression and sexuality) - They also believe Freud focused too much on children as determinants of adult personality - THEORY: they believe development continues throughout the lifespan as individuals confront challenges that are specific to particular phases in their lives * Alfred Adler – insisted humans are inherently social beings who are motivated by social interest - Social interest is the desire to advance the welfare of others - They place others interests before themselves - They strive for superiority which drives people to compensate for real or imagined defects in themselves and in life Analytical Psychology/Carl Jung – believed that humans possess not only a personal unconscious based on their life experiences, but also a collective unconscious that consists of memories accumulated throughout the entire history of the human race - Archetypes are inherited tendencies to interpret experience in certain ways o Symbols, myths, beliefs, god, etc. Object Relations – focus on the images or mental representations that people form of themselves and other people as a result of early experience with their caregiver/parents - The internal representations of their parents work as models through which later social interactions are viewed, which exert an unconscious influence on a person’s life relationships - Create self-fulfilling expressions about our relationships Attachment Secure = easy to get close to others and can depend on them - No worries about being abandoned or about someone getting too close to me Avoidant = somewhat uncomfortable being close to others and find it difficult to trust them - Get nervous when people get to close - Often, in relationships people want me to me more intimate Anxious = other are reluctant to get close and worry about others not actually “loving you” - Want to be closer to others then they want to and often scare people away Human Actualization Self-actualization – total realization of one’s human potential Carl Rogers – believed that our behavior is not a reaction to unconscious conflicts but a response to our immediate conscious experience of self and environment - Forces that direct behavior are within us and when they are distorted or blocked by the environment, they can be trusted to direct us toward self- actualization 1. The Self: an organized, consistent set of perceptions of and beliefs about oneself - Children cant distinguish between themselves and their environment, so through interactions with the world they start to differentiate “me” from “not me” - Self-consistency is the absence of conflict among self-perceptions - Congruence is the consistency between self-perceptions and experience - Any experience we have that is inconsistent with our self-concept causes threat and anxiety o Well adjusted people can respond to threat adaptively by modifying the self-concept of experiences (come up with honest reasoning) o Others choose to deny or distort their experiences to remove the incongruence = “problem in living” (make up excuses) - The more inflexible someone’s self-concepts are, the less open they will be to their experiences 2. Need for Positive Regard – acceptance, sympathy, and love from others and is essentially - Unconditioned Positive Regard is the idea hat a child is inherently worthy of love - Conditioned Positive Regard is dependent on how the child behaves and love is only given when the child behaves how the parents want them too - Need for Positive Self-Regard is when people need positive regard from others and themselves - Conditions of Worth dictates when we approve or disapprove of ourselves 3. Fully Functioning Persons – people who do not hide behind masks or adopt artificial roles - They have achieved self-actualization - Have a sense of inner freedom, self-determination, and no fear Research on the Self Self-Esteem – refers to how positively or negatively we feel about ourselves - Aspect of personal-well-being, happiness, and adjustment - Levels self-esteem tend to be very stable across development from childhood to adulthood - People with high self-esteem are less susceptible to social pressure, have fewer interpersonal problems, and are happier with their lives - People with low self-esteem are more prone to psychological problems like anxiety and depression and have poorer social relationships - Children develop higher self-esteem when their parents communicate unconditional acceptance and love - Unrealistic or very high self-esteem can be the most dangerous and lead to violence and aggression - If your goal is enhances self-esteem, achieving your goal imparts a feeling of worth and value, but the emotional aspects will only be temporary (se
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