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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 – Psychology: The Science of Behaviour Complete information for Chapter 1

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Western University
Psychology 1000
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog

Chapter 1Psychology The Science of BehaviourPsychologyThe scientific study of behaviour and the factors that influence it Taking into account Biological Individual and Environmental factors Basic and Applied ScienceTwo types of research o Basic research Knowledge gained purely for its own sake The goals are to describe how people behave and to identify factors that influence it Research maybe carried out in lab or real world eg Robert CaveJigsaw case studyshowed how competition leads to hostility but could be reduced by making them dependent on each other o Applied research Knowledge gained to solve specific practical problems Uses principles discovered via basic research to solve practical problemsGoals of PsychologyFour basic goals DEuPIc o Describe how people and animals behave o Explain and understand the causes of the behaviour o Predict how people and animals behave under certain conditions o Influence or control the behaviour through knowledge and control of causesImportance of PerspectivesDiverse viewpoints allows for enriched understanding of behaviour and its causesSix different perspectives biological cognitive psychodynamic behavioural humanistic and sociocultural PBSHBC o Psychodynamicunconscious forces motivating behaviour o Behaviouralrole of external environment on out action o Socioculturalculture and behaviour relate o Humanisticself actualization and free will o Biologicalphysical side of human nature brain and genes o Cognitivethought processThe Biological PerspectiveFocuses on the physical side of human nature o Emphasizes role of brain including biochemical processesMindbody dualism The belief that the mind is a spiritual entity not subject to the physical laws that govern the body o No amount of research on the body could ever explain the mind o Ancient widelyheld view especially by GreeksMonism The belief that the mind and body are one and mental events are a product of physical events o Modern view by most scientistsDiscovery of BrainBehaviour RelationsLate 1700s Luigi Galvani discovered severed leg of frog moved with electrical current applied to it o Defied prior belief that bodily movements were caused by soulBy 1870 researchers applied electrical stimulation directly to brains of animals o Stimulation of specific areas on brain resulted in movements of particular musclesKarl Lashley damaged specific regions of brain and studied effects on learning and memory abilities in animals trained to run through mazesIn 1929 invention of electroencephalogram EEG allowed researchers to measure electrical activity of large areas of brain
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