September 11 , 2013
CHAPTER ONE –PSYCHOLOGY: THE SCIENCE OF BEHAVIOUR
Psychology is a science:
o Involves the systematic gathering and evaluating of empirical evidence to
answer questions and test beliefs about the natural world.
It is the scientific study of behaviour and the mind.
Behaviour –refers to actions and responses that we can directly observe.
Mind –refers to internal states and processes, such as thoughts and feelings.
Four Central Goals:
1. To describe how people and other animals behave.
2. To explain and understand the causes of these behaviours.
3. T predict how people and animals will behave under certain conditions.
4. To influence or control behaviour through knowledge and control of its causes to
enhance human welfare.
PSYCHOLOGY –SOME HISTORY
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
Established the first experimental psychology lab.
Along with Edward Titchener, developed the Structuralism approach.
o The mind should be studied by breaking it down into basic components.
o Used “introspection” to study sensations.
o “Describes inner experiences”
o Structuralism gave way to functionalism.
o Focuses on the functions of consciousness rather than its structure.
o Our hands –“Why do we have hands?” “How do they help us?” PSYCHODYNAMIC PERSPECTIVE
Psychodynamic perspective –searches for the causes of behaviour within the inner
workings of our personality. Emphasizing the role of unconscious processes.
Psychoanalysis –the analysis of internal and primarily unconscious psychological forces.
THE BEHAVIOURAL PERSPECTIVE
Focuses on the role of the external environment in governing our actions.
John Locke –tabula rasa or blank slate.
Human nature is shaped by our environment.
o Ivan Pavlov
o Edward Thorndike
o John B. Watson
o B.F. Skinner
*WATSON –Little Albert Experiment (Video Clip)
- Ability to control and induce fear (conditioning)
- Experiment proving Nurture over Nature
- Uses loud noises to enable fear of rats (and other furry animals)
- Fears are learned
- This theory is Behaviourism
THE HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE
Emphasizes free will, personal growth, and the attempt to find meaning in one’s