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Chapter 4

Psychology 1000- Chapter 4 Lecture Notes

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Psychology 1000
John Campbell

Psychology 1000 September 30 , 2013 CHAPTER FOUR –GENES AND EVOLUTION JIM TWINS:  Jim Lewis and Jim Springer  Separated at birth and raised in different families  Reunited at 39 years olds  The Jim twins have multiple bizarre things in common: o First wife: Linda o Second wife: Betty o Drank: Miller Lite –heavy drinker o Smoked: Salem o Hobby: Woodworking o Job: Law enforcement (Springer –security guard; Lewis –sheriff constable) o First son: James Alan (or Allan) o Drive: Chevrolet  IQ’s are the same  Different personalities –but still major similarities CHROMOSOMES AND GENES  Hippocrates –suggested that semen contains some sort of design for the formation of offspring o Partially correct  Gregor Mendel –a monk performing research with garden peas in the 1860s lead to the beginning of modern genetic theory DOMINANT AND RECESSIVE GENES  One of the reasons that genotypes differ from phenotypes is that genes are dominant and recessive  If you receive a dominant gene from your mother or father then the particular characteristics associated with that gene will be present  For recessive gene, the characteristic for it will not show up unless BOTH genes from your mother and father are recessive BROWN VS. BLUE EYED  Brown eyes are dominant  Blue eyes are recessive  Brown eyed gene = B  Blue eyed gene = b o BB Bb  BB Bb o Bb Bb  Bb BB bb BEHAVIOUR GENETICS TECHNIQUES  We get half of our genetic material from each parent  Therefore, probability of sharing any particular gene with one of your parents is 50% or 0.50  Same goes for your siblings GENETIC INFLUENCES Genotype: - Specific genetic makeup of an individual - One’s genotype I present from conception and never changes Phenotype: - Observable characteristic produced by the genetic makeup - Can be affected by genes and by the environment FATAL FAMILIAL INSOMNIA (FFI)  Recessive  Genetic disease  Individual around 50 gets insomnia suddenly, to the extent that they cannot sleep and eventually slip into a coma state and die  No treatment or cure –sleep medications do not work because it just knocks them unconscious  Patient 0 (zero) was the first with the disease back in Venice, Italy. This patient passed it down to his family, thus the disease spread  The phenotype of the individuals gives no indication of the disease, but the genotype is programmed at the birth and the disease is dormant until mid-life  Something triggers the onset of the genetic disease (phenotype changes) and the results are irreversible GENES AND INTELLIGENCE  Daniel Tammet: o Since four years old o Suffered from seizures as a child which triggered something in his brain o Could do huge calculations in his head o Surpasses calculators and computers numbers o Sees shapes and colours in his head, as well as flashes o His brain does math without having to think o Knows 9 languages o Can learn a new language after only 7 days o Can read off 22, 500 digits of π (pi) o Considers himself a Synesthete o Memory intelligence o Brings a new approach to things –does things that were before thought to be impossible o Socially awkward o IQ about 150  Chris Langan: o IQ of 190 – 210 o Wrote a book at age 3 or 4 o Straight A’s in school without doing a thing –skipped grades o Intuitively intelligent o Language is his strong point, numbers not so much o Is very good at doing things that we already do as people o Personality is syndical and harsh o Had a tough upbringing/environment October 2 , 2013 CHARLES DARWIN  The ”Voyage of the Beagle”  PROBLEM ONE: o Some believed that species didn’t change, they were just knocked off by God (catastrophic evens) –this was called Catastrophism o Flora and fauna have changed over time o Fossil record showed this to be true  PROBLEM TWO: o Taxonomic relationship among living things o Obvious relationships existed among different organisms (different birds, trees, fish, etc.) o Stuff could be assigned to natural categories  PROBLEM THREE: o Adaptations  Species have traits that seem to have special functions  Different traits for different jobs  E.g. beaks, teeth, feathers, etc. DARWIN’S SOLUTION  Presented his explanation in 1859 in his book, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection  Species “descended with modification” from ancestral species  “Natural Selection” is the mechanism for descent with modification EVOLUTION  Is a change over time in the frequency with which particular genes –and the characteristics they produce –occur within a population NATURAL SELECTION  Characteristics that increase the likelihood of survival and ability to reproduce within a particular environment will be more likely to be preserved in the population  Darwin knew that there was an “overproduction” problem: o More individuals are born than survive to reproduce o He inferred that competition among individuals in a population; only some offspring survive to reproduce EVOLUTIONARY ADAPTATIONS  The products of natural selection are called adaptations  Adaptations allow organisms to meet recurring environment challenged to their survival thereby increasing their reproductive ability EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY  Seeks to understand how behavioural abilities and tendencies have evolved over the course of millions of years in response to environment demands FIVE FACTOR MODEL OF PERSONALITY  Differences in personality can be accounted for by variation along 5 traits: 1. Extroversion –introversion 2. Agreeableness 3. Conscientiousness 4. Neuroticism 5. Openness to experience EVOLUTIONARY PERSONALITY THEORY  Behavioural genetics researchers  Attempt to understand how biological factors contribute to difference between individuals on personality traits  Evolutionary personality theory: o Where did the traits come from in the first place?  According to David Buss –Basic, universal personality traits exist because they have helped humans achieve two key goals: 1. Physical survival o Agreeableness o Conscientiousness o Neuroticism 2. Reproduction of the species o Introversion –extraversion o Openness to experience LEWIS GOLDBERG (1981) –FIVE BASIC QUESTIONS  According to Goldberg, people have had to ask 5 basic questions over the course of evolution when interacting with another person 1. Is person X active and dominant r passive and submissive? Can I dominate X or will I have to submit to X 2. Is person X agreeable to friendly, or hostile and uncooperative? 3. Can I count on X? Is X conscientious and dependable? 4. Is X sane (stable, rational predictable) or “crazy” (unstable, unpredictable, possibly dangerous)? 5. How smart is X, and how quickly can X lean to adapt?  Do we still ask these questions on the same level? TYTPES OF ADAPTATION  Broad o Learn language, reason logically  Domain-specific o Solve particular problem  Mate selection  Choosing safe food  Avoiding certain environmental hazards EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY  The need for males to compete with each other for mates throughout our evolutionary history has resulted in the realities mentioned by the evolutionary psychologist MATING SYSTEMS AND PARENTAL INVESTMENT  The Evolution of Desire o Have we evolved patterns for choosing a mate and raising our children?  Parental investment o Time, effort, energy, risk associated with caring successfully for each offspring o Humans invest a great deal in small number of offspring MATING SYSTEMS  Trivers (1972) o Sex differences in parental investment explain mating systems o Each parent does not necessarily make equal parental investment  Have competition for sex with highest parental investment (is usually the female)  Sex with highest parental investment o More discriminating in mate selection  Polygynous o One male; many females  Monogamous o Two parents have equal parental investment o Little sexual dimorphism between males / females  Polyandry o One female; many males o Females compete for access to males o Sexual dimorphism –female stronger, more aggressive  Polygynandry o Promiscuous relationships among males / females PATERNAL INVESTMENT  In most cultures, males contribute to child-rearing in one way or another o Direct paternal care o Indirectly by providing  Parents commit HUGE amount of time, attention, physical and material resources to care of their children WHAT DO MEN AND WOMEN WANT?  For both men and women the top 3: o Mutual attraction, dependability, emotional stability  For men: o Physical attractiveness; health are rated important  For women: o Earning potential, status, ambitiousness are rated important INITIAL ENCOUNTERS
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