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Chapter 8

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Western University
Psychology 1000

Chapter 8 Notes Memory: Refers to the process that allow us to record and later retrieve experiences and information Encoding: Refers to getting information into the system by translating it into a neural code Storage: Involves retaining information over time Retrieval: Involves pulling i∑nformation our of storage when we want to use it Sensory memory: Holds incoming sensory information just long enough for it to be recognized Sensory registers: The initial information processors Iconic store: Visual sensory register Short-term memory: Holds the information that we are conscious of at any given time Also refers to working memory Consciously processes, codes, and “works on” information Chunking: Combining individual items into larger units of meaning Maintenance rehearsal: The simple repetition of information Elaborative rehearsal: Focusing on the meaning of information or relating it to other things we already know Long term memory: More durable stored memories Serial position effect: Recall is influenced by a word’s position in a series of items Primacy effect: Superior recall of early words Transfer of early words to long term memory Recency effect: Superior recall of most recent words Short term memory Effortful processing: Encoding that is initiated intentionally and requires conscious attention Rehearsing, making lists, taking class notes Automatic processing: Encoding that occurs without intention and requires minimal attention Reading Structural encoding: Perceiving the structural properties of the words Most shallow encoding Phonological encoding: Sounding out the word to yourself and then judging if it matches another word Medium deepness Semantic encoding: Focuses on the meaning of information Deepest encoding Mnemonics: The art of improving memory Mnemonic device: Any type of memory aid Hierarchies, chunking, acronyms Dual coding theory: Encoding information using both codes enhances memory Schema: An organized pattern of thought about some aspect of the world “Mental framework” Organize and interpret information E.g. Class of people, events Expert knowledge: A process of developing schemas to help to encode information into meaningful patterns Musician reading music notes Associative network: A massive network of associated ideas and concepts Priming: The activation of one concept by another Neural network: Each concept is represented by a particular pattern or set of nodes that becomes activated simultaneously Declarative memory: Factual knowledge Episodic, semantic Episodic memory: Our store of factual knowledge concerning personal experiences, when, where, and what happened in the episodes of our lives Recollection of eating pizza last night Semantic memory: General factual knowledge about the world and language Memory for word and concepts Mt. Everest is
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