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Chapter 7

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Psychology 1000

Chapter 7 Notes Learning: A process by which experience produces a relatively enduring change in an organisms behaviour or capabilities Habituation: A decrease in the strength of response to a repeated stimulus Clothing on skin Sensitization: An increase in the strength of response to a repeated stimulus Loud sound Classical conditioning: An organism learns to associate two stimuli, such that one stimulus comes to produce a response that originally was produced only by the other stimulus Acquisition: The period during which a response is being learned Unconditioned stimulus: A stimulus that innately elicits a response Food Unconditioned response: A natural, unlearned reflex Salvation in response to food Conditioned stimulus: A stimulus that gains value through learning Your favourite restaurant Conditioned response: Learned response Feeling hungry when you see your favourite restaurant Extinction: If the CS is presented repeatedly in the absence of food Spontaneous recovery: The extinguished CR reappeared after being weakened by extinction trials Stimulus generalization: Stimuli similar to the initial CS elicit a CR Discrimination: When a CR occurs to one stimulus but not to others Higher-order conditioning: A neutral stimulus becomes a CS after being paired with an already established CS Usually a weaker CR that extinguishes more rapidly Exposure therapies: Basic goal is to expose the phobic patient to the feared stimulus (CS) without any UCS, allowing extinction to occur Aversion therapy: Attempts to condition an aversion (repulsion) to a stimulus that triggers unwanted behaviour by pairing it with a noxious UCS Law of effect: In a given situation, a response followed by a “satisfying” consequence will more likely to occur, and a response followed by an unsatisfying outcome will be less likely to occur Operant conditioning: A type of learning in which behaviour is influenced by its consequences Reinforcement: A response is strengthened - increase in frequency - by an outcome that follows it Reinforcer: The outcome - a stimulus or event - that increases the frequency of a response Punishment: A response is weakened - decrease in frequency - by an outcome that follows it Punisher: A consequence that weakens the behaviour ABC’s of Operant Conditioning A. Antecedent stimuli - Stimuli that are present before a behaviour occurs B. Behaviour that an organism emits C. Consequences that follow Discriminative stimulus: A signal that a particular response will now produce certain consequences Positive reinforcement: A response is strengthened by a subsequent presentation of a stimulus A. Cat presses lever - Food pellets appear - Lever pressing increases Negative reinforcement: A response is strengthened by a subsequent removal or avoidance of a stimulus A. Person takes Aspirin - Headache pain goes away - Aspirin consumption increases Operant extinction: The weakening and eventual disappearance of a response because it is no longer reinforced Resistance to extinction: The degree to which non-reinforced responses persist A. Low - May stop quickly B. High - Will not stop for a long time Positive punishment: A response is weakened by a subsequent presentation of a stimulus A. Two siblings fighting over a toy - Parents scold them - Fighting decreases Negative punishment: A response is weakened by a subsequent removal of a stimulus A. Two
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