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Chapter 10

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Psychology 1000

Chapter 10 Notes Intelligence: The ability to acquire knowledge, to think and reason effectively, and to deal adaptively with the environment  Sir Francis Galton and Alfred Binet  Galton: o People inherited intellectual mental constitutions o People who were more sociable and occupational successful preformed better on laboratory tasks o His measures of nervous system efficiency proved unrelated to socially relevant measures of mental ability  Binet o Mental abilities develop with age o The rate at which people gain mental competence is a characteristic of the person and is fairly constant over time Mental age: The result of the testing score  If an 8 year old could solve problems at the level of a 10 year old, the child was said to have a mental age of 10 Intelligence quotient: The ratio of mental age to chronological age, multiplied by 100  Old way, a 10 year old with a mental age of 10 would have an IQ of 100  New way, based a person’s performance relative to the scores of other people the same age Psychometric approach: Attempts to map the structure of intellect and to discover the kinds of mental competencies that underlie test performance Cognitive processes approach: Studies the specific thought processes that underlie those mental competencies Psychometrics: The statistical study of psychological tests  Measure abilities  Provide measurement based map of the mind Factor Analysis: Reduces a large number of measures to a small number of clusters G factor: General intelligence  Intellectual performance is determined partly by g factor and partly by whatever special abilities are required to perform that particular task Primary mental abilities: Human mental performance depends not on a g factor but on seven distinct abilities Crystallized intelligence: The ability to apply previously acquired knowledge to current problems  Long term memory Fluid intelligence: The ability to deal with novel problem solving situations for which personal experiences does not provide a solution  Short term memory  Tower of Hanoi, 9 dots Three-stratum theory of cognitive abilities: Three levels of mental skills, general, broad, and narrow Cognitive process theories: Explore the scientific information processing and cognitive processes that underlie intellectual ability Triarchic theory of intelligence: Addresses both the psychological processes involved in intelligent behavior and the diverse forms that intelligence can take Meta components: The higher order processes used to plan and regulate task performance Performance components: The actual mental processes used to perform the task Knowledge acquisition components: Allow us to learn form our experiences, store information in memory and combine new insights with preciously acquired information Analytical intelligence: Involves the kinds of academically oriented problem- solving skills measured by traditional intelligence tests Practical intelligence: The skills needed to cope with everyday demands and to manage oneself and other people effectively Creative intelligence: The mental skills needed to deal adaptively with novel problems Linguistic intelligence: The ability to use language well  Writer Logical-mathematical intelligence: The ability to reason mathematically and logically Visuospatial intelligence: The ability to solve spatial problems or to succeed in a field such as architecture Musical intelligence: The ability to perceive pitch and rhythm and to understand and produce music Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence: The ability to control body movements and skillfully manipulate objects  Highly skilled dancer, athlete, or surgeon Interpersonal intelligence: The ability to understand and relate well to others Intrapersonal intelligence: The ability to understand oneself Naturalistic intelligence: The ability to detect and understand phenomena in the natural world  Zoologist, meteorologist Existential intelligence: A philosophically orientated ability to ponder questions about the meaning of one’s existen
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