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Chapter 13

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Psychology 1000

Chapter 13 Notes  Attributions: Judgments about the causes of our own and other people’s behaviour and outcomes o If I attribute my A to hard work and ability, I will feel greater pride than if I attribute it to an easy test  Personal (Internal) attributions: People’s behaviour is caused by their characteristics o My A on my exam reflects my high ability  Situational (External) attributions: Aspects of a situation cause a behaviour o I received an easy A, because the test was easy  Fundamental attribution error: We underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate the role of personal factors when explaining other people’s behaviour o Slow driver ahead of us is a moron, fast driver is a maniac o We never consider ourselves to be morons, or maniacs o Perhaps we are driving slowly because of unfamiliar directions o We have more information  Self serving bias: Making relatively more personal attributions for successes and more situational attributions for failures o Successes – Personal factors: We played great defense o Failures – External causes: Poor officiating  Primacy effect: Our tendency to attach more importance to the initial information what we learn about a person o More alert to information we learn first o Initial information may shape subsequent information  Stereotype: A generalized belief about a group or category of people o Powerful type of schema  Self fulfilling prophecy: When people’s erroneous expectations lead them to act toward others in a way that brings about the expected bahaviours, thereby confirming the original impression o Occurs usually without conscious thought  Attitude: A positive or negative evaluative reaction toward a stimulus o Person, action, object, or concept  Theory of planned behaviour: Our intention to engage in a behaviour is strongest when we have a positive attitude toward that behaviour 1. When social norms – our perceptions of what other people think we should do – support our attitudes, and when we believe that the behaviour is under our control 2. Attitudes have a greater influence on behaviour when we are aware of them and when they are strongly held 3. General attitudes are better at predicting general classes of behaviour, and specific attitudes are better at predicting specific bahaviours  Theory of cognitive dissonance: People strive for consistency in their cognitions  Self perception theory: We make inferences about our own attitudes by observing how we behave  Communicator credibility: How believable the communicator is o Often the key to effective persuasion o Expertise and trustworthiness o Communicators who are physically attractive, likeable and similar to us, may persuade us more effectively  Central route to persuasion: Occurs when people think carefully about the message and are influenced because they find arguments compelling  Peripheral route to persuasion: Occurs when people do not scrutinize the message but are influenced mostly by other factors o Speaker’s attractiveness o Message’s emotional appeal o Deeper foundation, lasts longer  Social facilitation: An increased tendency to perform one’s dominant response in the mere presence of others o Difficult and complex task: Make more errors o Simple task: Enhanced performance  Social norms: Shared expectations about how people should think, feel, and behave, and they are the cement that binds social systems together  Social role: A set of norms that characterizes how people in a given social position ought to behave  Informational social influence: We follow the opinions or behaviour of other people because we believe they have accurate knowledge and what they are doing is “right”  Normative social influence: Conforming to obtain rewards that come from being accepted by other people, while at the same time avoiding their rejection  Factors that affect conformity: o Group size: Conformity increases from about 5 to 35 percent as group size increased from one to four or five confederates o Presence of a dissenter: When on confederate disagreed with the others, this greatly reduced real participant’s conformity o Task importance: Conformity increased as stakes become higher for difficult judgments and decreased for easy judgments  Factors that influence destructive obedience: o Remoteness of the victim: Greater when learner was out of sight o Closeness and legitimacy of the authority figure: Obedience was highest when the authority figure was close and perceived as legitimate o Cog in a wheel: Obedience decreases when someone else does the “dirty work” o Personal characteristics  Norm of reciprocity: Involves the expectation that when others treat us well we should respond in kind  Door in the face technique: A persuader makes a large request, expecting you to reject it, then presents a smaller request  Foot in the door technique: A persuader gets you to comply with a small request first and later presents a larger request  Lowballing: A persuader gets you to commit to some action and then, before you actually perform the behaviour, he or she increases the “cost” of that same behaviour  Deindividualization: A loss of individuality that leads to disinhibited behaviour o Cheating and stealing, riots by sports fans, acts of genocide  Social loafing: The tendency for people to expend less individual effort when working in a group than when working alone  Social compensation: They will work harder in a group than alone if they expect that their colleagues either don’t have enough ability or will slack off  Group polarization: When a group of like minded people discuss an issue, whether face to face or through email, the “average” opinion of the group becomes more extreme o Normative social influence: Individuals may be motivated to adopt a more extreme position to gain the group’s approval o Social influence: New arguments tend to make the initial positions seem even more valid  Group think: The tendency for group members to suspend critical thinking because they are striving to seek agreement o High stress, Insulated, Directive leader, High cohesion o Direct pressure: Stop rocking the boat o Mind guards: P
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