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Chapter 2

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Psychology 1000
John Campbell

Psychology 1000 Lecture 3 September 16, 2013 Biological Perspective  Examines how brain processes and other bodily functions regulate behavior  Behavioral Neuroscience: examines brain processes and other physiological functions that underline our behaviors, sensory experiences, emotions, and thoughts. o The Capgras delusion: a delusion where people believe that their loved one has been replaced by an imposter.  Famous researchers o Karl Lashley o W.B. Scoville o Brenda Milner o Donald O. Hebb  However possibly the most famous was the patient H.M. o Memory loss- to alleviate seizures related to epilepsy, had surgery on his brain o Worked… in the sense he had no more seizures o But he now has amnesia  Different Perspectives o Capgras syndrome- one example o Differing perspectives give different explanations o Psychodynamic vs. behavioral neuroscience Chapter 2- studying behavior scientifically Scientific attitudes  Curiosity (why?)  Skepticism (show me your evidence.)(might there be a better explanation)  Open mindedness (recognizing that the results and findings may be against your instincts) o Examples from textbook-  Kitty Genovese murder  Horrible crime witnessed by 38 bystanders, none of whom called 911  Bystander apathy  Darley and Latane  Was there something going on here?  Why would no one call the police? o Darley and Latane  Rather than apathy perhaps it was “diffusion of responsibility”  Created if than question:  “in an emergency, IF multiple bystanders are present THEN the likelihood that any one bystander will intervene is reduced  How did they do it? Designed an experiment to test the hypothesis: The Correlational Method  Study relationships among variables  Correlation does not mean causation  Variable: anything that can be measured  Behaviors, events, characteristics  Relationship between variables is shown by statistic, the correlation coefficient (r)  R can be between -1.0 and +1.0  0 means no correlation  Value tells us the strength of relationship  Sign tells us the direction of the relationship ( + - )  + means that both variables vary in same direction (more smokes, more cancer)  - means that when one goes up the other goes down (more smokes, years to live) Correlations- recap  2 important aspects o Degree and direction o Degree refers to strength ( +1…………0…………….-1) The experimental method  Three steps o Manipulate a variable o Determine whether the manipulation causes a change in the second variable o Control for extraneous factors that might cause the apparent change  Hypothesis o A preditction about a cause-effect variable Operational definition  Defines a variable in terms of the specific procedures used to produce or measure it  Operational definitions translate abstract concepts into something observable and measurable  Example “ an academic performance”  Test score; course grade; overall GPA Independent vs. dependent variables  Independent variable o The factor that is manipulated or controlled by experimenter  Dependent variable o The factor that is measured by the experimenter and that may be influenced by the independent variable o * dependent depends on independent Experimental and
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