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Chapter 8

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Psychology 1000

CHAPTER 8: MEMORY - memory refers t the processes that allow us to record and later retrieve experiences and information > MEMORY AS INFORMATION PROCESSING - the mind is a processing system that encodes, stores, and retrieves info - encoding: getting info into the system by translating into a neural code that your brain processes - storage: involves retaining information over time - retrieval: pulling information out of storage when we want to use it A Three-Component Model - Atkinson and Shiffrin model  memory has 3 major components: sensory memory, short term or “working” memory, and long-term memory Sensory Memory: - holds incoming sensory information just long enough for it to be recognized - composed of different subsystems: o sensory registers: the initial information processors o iconic store: our visual sensory register o echoic store: the auditory sensory register - it is difficult or impossible to retain complete information in purely visual form for more than a fraction of a second - echoic memory lasts longer than iconic memory (about 2 seconds) Short-Term/Working Memory: - holds the info we are conscious of at any given time  consciously processes, codes, and works on information Mental Representations - once info leaves sensory memory, it must be represented by some type of code if it is to be retained in short-term and eventually long-term memory - We may try to form a mental image (visual encoding), code something by sound (phonologic encoding), or focus on the meaning of a stimulus (semantic encoding). For physical actions we code patterns of movement (motor encoding) Capacity and Duration: - depending upon the stimulus, such as numbers, letters, or words, most people can hold no more than 5-9 meaningful items in short-term memory (7, plus/minus 2) - chunking: combining individual items to form larger units of meaning - limited in duration as well as capacity  around 20 seconds - maintenance rehearsal: the simple repetition of information - elaborative rehearsal: involves focusing on the meaning of information or relating it to other things we already know  more effective in transferring info into long-term memory 1 Putting short-term memory “to work”: - cognitive scientists see short-term memory as a mental workplace that actively and simultaneously process different types of info - Baddeley  divided working memory into 3 components: o Auditory working memory (the phonological loop)  repeating a name, number to yourself o Visual-spatial working memory (the visuo-spatial sketchpad)  allows us to temporarily store and manipulate images and spatial info o Central executive  decides how much attention to allocate to mental imagery and auditory rehearsal, calls up info from long-term, and integrates the input  occurs in prefrontal cortex Long-Term Memory - our vast library of already stored memories - can form new memories until we die  unlimited room for more - serial position effect: recall is influenced by a word’s position in a series of items. The serial position effect has two components: o primacy effect: easier to recall early words in the list  when the first few words are seen, there is time for rehearsal, but as more words come short- term memory fills up o recency effect: easier to recall the most recent words  haven’t been bumped out of short term memory yet > ENCODING: ENTERING INFORMATION Effortful and Automatic Processing - effortful processing is encoding that is initiated intentionally and requires conscious attention - automatic processing is encoding that occurs without intention and requires minimal attention  frequency, spatial location, sequence, and timing of events Levels of Processing - structural encoding  what something looks like - phonological encoding  what something sounds like - semantic encoding  what something means - Craik  levels of processing concept  the more deeply we process info, the better it will be remembered  semantic encoding deepest, structural shallowest Exposure and Rehearsal - to learn factual and conceptual information we need to employ effortful, deep processing - simple repeated exposure to a stimulus without stopping to think about it is shallow processing - elaborative rehearsal focuses on the meaning of info, thus is much more effective in transferring to long-term memory, as opposed to maintenance rehearsal 2 Organization and Imagery Hierarchies and Chunking - logical hierarchy enhances our understand of how diverse elements are related, and also makes it easier to use imagery as a cue - chunking refers to combining individual items into a larger unit of meaning Mnemonic Devices - mnemonics  “the art of improving memory” - a mnemonic device is any type of memory aid (hierarchies, chunking, acronyms) - do not reduce amount of info, but reorganize info into more meaningful units and provide extra cues that help retrieve info from long-term memory Visual Imagery - Paivio  said info is stored in long-term memory either in verbal codes or nonverbal (usually visual) codes - Dual coding theory: encoding information using both codes enhances memory, because the odds improve that at least one of the codes will be available later to support recall - easier to encode abstract concepts semantically rather than visually - ancient Greek method  method of loci  linking a “location” with distinct landmarks to a list of items or concepts How Prior Knowledge Shapes Encoding Schemas: Our Mental Organizers - Bartlett  a mental framework or organized pattern of thought about some aspect of the world, such as a class of people, events, situations, or objects - we form schemas through experience, and create a perceptual set, which forces us to organize an interpret info in a certain way Schemas and Expert Knowledge - acquiring expert knowledge can be viewed as a process of developing schemas – mental frameworks – that help encode info into meaningful patterns > STORAGE: RETAINING INFORMATION Memory as a Network Associative Networks - memory can be represented as a massive network of associated ideas and concepts - when people think about a concept, there is a spreading activation of related concepts throughout the network - priming: refers to the activation of one concept by another - explains why “hints” and mnemonic devices help stimulate our recall 3 Neural Networks - each concept is represented by a particular pattern or set of nodes that becomes activated simultaneously  eg, when node 4 is activated with 9 and 42, the concept “red” might come to mind - neural network models are often called parallel distributed processing models  multiple nodes distributed throughout the brain fire in parallel, spreading their activation to other nodes Types of Long-Term Memory - many cognitive scientists believe that we possess several long-term memory systems that interact with one another Declarative and Procedural Memory - Declarative memory: involves factual knowledge, and includes two subcategories: o Episodic memory: our store of factual knowledge concerning personal experiences o Semantic memory: represents general factual knowledge about the world and language, including memory for words and concepts Called “declarative” because typically we have to declare that we know it - Procedural memory: non-declarative – reflected in skills and actions o Skills are expressed by doing things o Also includes classically conditioned responses Explicit and Implicit Memory - Explicit memory involves conscious or intentional memory retrieval - recognition  requires us to decide if a stimulus is familiar - recall  involves spontaneous memory retrieval, in the sense that you must retrieve the target stimuli or information on your own - cued recall  hints are given to stimulate memory - Implicit memory occurs when memory influences our behaviour without conscious awareness  any well-learned skill - Priming tasks  information that remains in your memory, even though you may be unable to consciously recall it > RETRIEVAL: ACCESSING INFORMATION - retrieval cue: any stimulus, whether internal or external, that stimulates the activation of information stored in long-term memory The Value of Multiple and Self-Generated Cues - having multiple, self-generated retrieval cues was the most effective approach to maximizing recall - generating our own associations involves deeper, more elaborative rehearsal - generating multiple associations involves deeper processing than just one - self-generated cues have personal meaning 4 - with multiple cues, if one fails, another may activate memory The Value of Distinctiveness - distinctive stimuli are better remembered than non-distinctive ones Flashbulb Memory - recollections that seem so vivid and clear that we can picture them as if they were a “snapshot” of a moment in time - they are most likely to occur for distinctive, positive, or negative events that evoke strong emotional reactions and are recalled in conversation with other ppl Context, State, and Mood Effects on Memory
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