Textbook Notes (368,432)
Canada (161,877)
Psychology (4,891)
Psychology 1000 (1,619)
Dr.Mike (707)
Chapter 12

Chapter 12 Notes.doc

7 Pages
115 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 1000
Professor
Dr.Mike
Semester
Fall

Description
CHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY > WHAT IS PERSONALITY? - ppl behave somewhat consistently over time and over different situations, but more consistent in adulthood - personality: the distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that characterize a person’s responses to life situations - three characteristics of personality o components of identity that distinguish that person from others o behaviours are viewed as being caused primary by internal rather than environmental factors o the person’s behaviours seem to fit together in a meaningful way, suggesting an inner personality that guides and directs behaviours > THE PSYCHODYNAMIC PERSPECTIVE Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory Psychic Energy and Mental Events - instinctual drives generate psychic energy, which powers the mind and constantly presses for either direct or indirect release - mental events may be conscious, preconscious, or unconscious o conscious: everything we are presently aware of o preconscious: memories and thoughts we aren’t aware of, but can be recalled o unconscious: wishes, feelings, and impulses that lie beyond our awareness  come out in verbal slips and dreams The Structure of Personality - Freud divided personality into 3 separate but interacting structures: - The id: o exists totally within the unconscious mind  no contact w/ reality o innermost core of personality o present at birth o source of all psychic energy o pleasure principle: it seeks immediate gratification, regardless of rational considerations and environmental realities - The ego: o since the id cannot directly satisfy itself, ego develops to help it o functions primarily at a conscious level o reality principle: tests reality to decide when/where the id can express its impulses and satisfy its needs o “executive of the personality”  compromise between id’s needs and superego’s constraints - the superego: o last to develop  around 4 or 5 o moral part of the personality  contains traditional values/ideas of society o strives to control the id  tries to block gratification permanently o moralistic goals take precedence over realistic ones Conflict, Anxiety, and Defense - when the ego confronts impulses that threaten to get out of control anxiety results - when realistic strategies are ineffective in reducing anxiety, the ego may resort to defense mechanisms that deny or distort reality - some permit the release of impulses from the id in disguised forms that will not conflict w/ the external world or w/ with the prohibitions of the superego - repression: ego uses some of its energy to prevent anxiety-arousing memories, feelings and impulses from entering consciousness  only slip out in dreams and slips of tongue - sublimation: repressed impulse is released in the form of a socially acceptable behaviour - reaction formation: impulse is repressed, and its psychic energy finds release in exaggerated expression of the opposite behaviour Psychosexual Development - children pass through series of psychosexual stages during which the id’s pleasure- seeking tendencies are focused on specific pleasure-sensitive areas of the body erogenous zones o oral stage: 0-2  focused on mouth; key task is weaning o anal stage: 2-3  focused on process of elimination; key task is toilet training o phallic stage: 4-6  kids derive pleasure from sexual organs  Oedipus conflict: desire to kill father and have sex with mother  Electra complex: stems from girls’ penis envy  want to kill mother and have fathers children  This stage is milestone in gender identity  identify w/ same-sex parent o Latency stage: 7-puberty  sexuality becomes dormant o Genital stage: puberty on  erotic impulses find expression in sexual relations Evaluating Psychoanalytic Theory - often criticized on scientific grounds - may of its concepts are ambiguous and difficult to operationally define and measure - explains too much to allow clear-cut behavioural predictions Neoanalytic and Object Relations Approaches - Neoanalysts: psychoanalysts who disagreed with certain areas of Freud’s thinking o Believed he did not give social and cultural factors a sufficiently important role in the development of personality o Too much emphasis on child sexuality and effects of childhood experiences o Alfred Adler believed humans are motivated by social interest: the desire to advance the welfare of others, and we strive for superiority o Carl Jung  analytic psychology: expanded Freud’s notion of the unconscious – believed humans possess not only a personal unconscious based on life experiences, but also a collective unconscious that consists of memories accumulated throughout the entire history of the human race represented by archetypes, inherited tendencies to interpret an experience in certain ways - Object relations theorists focus on the images or mental representations that ppl form of themselves and other ppl as a result of early experience w/ caregivers o The way we see our caregivers influence our later relationships o More psychoanalysts claim to rely more heavily on the concepts of object relations than on classical psychoanalytic theory > THE HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE - emphasize the central role of conscious experience, as well as the creative potential and inborn striving for self-actualization, the total realization of one’s human potential Carl Rogers’s Self Theory - believed our behaviour is a response to our immediate conscious experience of self and environment The Self - self: an organized, consistent set of perceptions and beliefs about oneself o plays a powerful role in guiding our perceptions and directing our behaviour - children learn to distinguish between “me” and “not-me” through interaction w/ environ. - Once the self is established, we tend to maintain it, for it helps us to understand ourselves in relation to the world  self-consistency: absence of conflict among self-perceptions - Any experience we have that is inconsistent w/ our self-concept evokes threat & anxiety - ppl interpret situations in self-congruent ways and behave in ways that will lead others to react to them in a self-confirming fashion - the more inflexible ppl’s self-concept are, the less open they will be to their experience and will become more maladjusted The Need for Positive Regard - need for positive regard: need for acceptance, sympathy, and love from others - unconditional positive regard: independent from how the child behaves  always given positive regard  communicates that the child is inherently worthy of love - we also have a need for positive self-regard - if we only receive positive regard when we meet certain standards, we develop conditions of worth: dictate when we approve or disapprove of ourselves o can cause major incongruence between self and experience Fully Functioning Persons - fully functioning persons: those who have achieved self-actualization - do not hide behind masks or adopt artificial roles - feel inner-freedom, self-determination, and choice in the direction of their growth - can accept inner and outer experiences as they are, without modifying them defensively to suit a rigid self-concept or the expectations of others Research on the Self - two main topics of research: 1) the development of self-esteem and its effects on behaviour, 2) the roles played by self-enhancement and self-consistency motives Self-Esteem - self-esteem: how positively or negatively we feel about ourselves - ppl with high self-esteem are less susceptible to social pressure, have fewer interpersonal problems, are happier with their lives, achieve at a higher and more persistent level, and have more satisfying love relationships - develop high self esteem when parents communicate unconditional acceptance and love, establish clear guidelines for behavior, and reinforce compliance while giving the child freedom to make decisions and express opinions - those with high self-esteems are most prone to ego threats Self-Verification and Self-Enhancement Motives - self-verification: the tendency to try to verify or validate one’s existing self-concept o ppl have tendency to seek out self-verifying relationships  those who view themselves highly marry ppl who also view them highly - self-enhancement: the tendency to gain and preserve a positive self-image o eg, ppl attribute success to their own abilities and effort, but attribute failures to environmental factors o ppl tend to rate themselves as better than average for virtually any socially desirable trait that is subjective in nature Culture, Gender, and the Self - culture provides the learning context in which the self develops o ppl in America more likely to describe themselves in terms of personal traits, while those in Japan more likely to describe themselves in terms of their social roles and positions - gender schemas: organized mental structures that contain our understanding of the attributes and behaviours that are appropriate and expected for males and females o define what self “should” be for men and women Evaluating Humanistic Theories - may rely too heavily on individual’s reports of physical experi
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 1000

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit