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Chapter 8

Psych 1000 - Chapter 8.docx

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Western University
Psychology 1000

Psychology 1000 – Chapter 8: Memory Memory: the processes that allow us to record and later retrieve experiences and information Memory and Information Processing: Encoding: getting information into the system by translating it into a neural code that your brain processes Storage: retaining information over time Retrieval: the process of pulling information out of storage when we want to use it Three-Component Model: sensory memory, short-term “working” memory, and long-term memory Sensory Memory: hold incoming sensory information just long enough for it to be recognized - Sensory Registers: the initial information processors - Iconic Store: our visual sensory register - Echoic Story: out auditory sensory register Most information fades away but a small portion can enter short term memory through selective attention Short-Term/Working Memory: holds the information that we are conscious of at any given time - Consciously processes, codes, and “works on” information - Information must be represented by some type of code to be retained in short term memory - Mental Representations: memory codes o Visual Encoding: a mental image o Phonological Encoding: coding something by sound o Semantic Encoding: focusing on the meaning of a stimulus o Motor Encoding: coding patterns of movement - can hold only a limited amount of information at a time - people can hold no more than 5-9 meaningful items in short term memory at a time - a response that is elicited by a specific stimulus without prior learning - Chunking: combining individual items into larger units of meaning—aids recall - Rehearsing information extends its duration n short-term memory o Maintenance Rehearsal: the simple repetition of information o Elaborative Rehearsal: focusing on the meaning or relating something to other things we already know o Elaborative rehearsal is more effective in transferring information into long-term memory Long-Term Memory: our vast library of more durable stored memories - Capacity is unlimited, and long-term memories can endure up to a lifetime - Serial Position Effect: recall is influenced by a word’s position in a series of items o Primacy Effect: the superior recall of early words o Recency Effect: the superior recall of the most recent words Encoding: Entering Information: information but be organized in terms of specific codes for it to be easily accessible Effortful Processing: Encoding that is initiated intentionally and requires conscious attention—rehearsing, making lists, taking class notes Automatic Processing: encoding that occurs without intention and requires minimal attention Levels of Processing: the more deeply we process information, the better it will be remembered - Semantic encoding involved the deepest processing because it requires us to focus on meaning Organization and Imagery: Mnemonic Devices: any type of memory aid (ex. hierarchies, chunking, acronyms)—do not reduce amount to encode, but organize it into more meaningful units Dual Coding Theory: encoding information using verbal codes and nonverbal (visual) codes enhances memory—chances are that one of the two will be available later for recall The Method of Loci: forming images that link items to places Schema: an organized pattern of thought about some aspect of the world—formed through experience, and can strongly influence the way we encode memory Storage: Retaining Information: Associative Networks: a massive network of associated ideas and concepts Priming: the activation of one concept (or one unit of information) by another Neural Networks: all concepts are represented by particular patterns or sets of nodes that become activated simultaneously Types of Long-Term Memory: - Declarative and Procedural Memory o Declarative Memory: involves factual knowledge and includes two subcategories—episodic and semantic
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