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Chapter 10

Psych 1000 - Chapter 10.docx

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Psychology 1000

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Psychology 1000: Chapter 10 – Motivation and Emotion Perspectives on Motivation: Motivation: a process that influences the direction, persistence, and vigour of goal-directed behaviour Instinct Theory and Evolutionary Psychology: instincts motivate much of our behaviour Instinct: an inherited predisposition to behave in a specific and predictable way when exposed to a particular stimulus - Do not depend on learning - Have survival value for the organism Homeostasis and Drive Theory: the body’s biological systems are delicately balanced to ensure survival Homeostasis: a state of internal physiological equilibrium that the body strives to maintain - Requires a sensory mechanism for detecting changes in the internal environment - Requires a response system that can restore equilibrium - A control centre that receives information from the sensors and activates the response system o Functions like a thermostat - Can involve learned behaviours Drive Theory: physiological disruptions to homeostasis produce drives - Drives: states of internal tension that motivate an organism to behave in ways that reduce this tension Incentive and Expectancy Theories: pulls an organism toward a goal Incentives: represent environmental stimuli that “pull” an organism toward a goal e.g. a good grade can be an incentive for studying - Theory focuses on external stimuli that motivate behaviour - People value incentives differently and therefore respond differently Expectancy x Value Theory: proposes that goal-directed behaviour is jointly determined by two factors: the strength of the person’s expectation that particular behaviours will lead to a goal, and the value the individual places on that goal— often called incentive value These two factors are multiplied to produce motivation = expectancy x incentive value Extrinsic Motivation: performing an activity to obtain an external reward or to avoid punishment Intrinsic Motivation: performing an activity for its own sake—because you find it enjoyable or stimulating Psychodynamic and Humanistic Theories: view motivation within a broader context of personality development and functioning, but take radically different approaches Psychodynamic Theories: emphasize needs for self-esteem, relatedness to other people, conscious mental processes, unconscious motives and tensions t
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