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Chapter 11

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Western University
Psychology 1000

Chapter 10: Motivation Motivation  process that influences the direction, persistence, and vigour of goal-directed behaviour  Means “to move”  What moves us toward our goals? Perspectives of Motivation Instinct Theory & Evolutionary Psychology  View inspired by Darwin that instincts motivate much of our behaviour  Instinct  an inherited predisposition to behave in a specific and particular way when exposed to a particular stimulus o Have genetic basis, are found universally among all members of the species, do not depend on learning, and have survival value for the organism  Little evidence to support this theory  Key to motivation = adaptive significance of behaviour Homeostasis and Drive Theory  Homeostasis  a state of internal physiological equilibrium that the body strives to maintain  Hull’s Drive Theory of Motivation  physiological disruptions to homeostasis produce drives, states of internal tension that motivate an organism to behave in ways that reduce this tension o Ie hunger results from tissue deficit (lack of food) motivates us to eat  Hull says ultimate goal of motivation = to reduce drives  Applies to the regulation of hunger, thirst, body temp, weight and sleep  BUT: what about anorexia? Incentive and Expectancy Theories  Incentives  environmental stimuli that “pull” an organism toward a goal o Ex: a good grade o Stimuli with high incentive value can motivate behaviour, even WITHOUT BIOLOGICAL NEED o Ex: drug use  motivated by incentive value of drug’s effect (not to escape withdrawal)  But, why do people respond differently to same incentive? Must use cognitive perspective…  Expectancy x value theory  goal-directed behaviour is jointly determined by 2 factors: the strength of the person’s expectation that particular behaviours will lead to a goal, and the value that the individual places on that goal (called incentive value) o Thus, motivation = expectancy x incentive value  Ex: 2 ppl both believe studying harder will lead to an A, but one places greater value on getting an A – thus second is more motivated  Extrinsic motivation  performing an activity to obtain an external reward or to avoid punishment  Intrinsic motivation  performing an activity for its own sake – because you find it enjoyable or stimulating  Overjustification hypothesis  giving ppl extrinsic rewards to perform activities that they intrinsically enjoy may “over justify” that behaviour and reduce intrinsic motivation o Ie, play turns into work o Extrinsic rewards reduce intrinsic motivation most strongly when they are tangible (money, or prizes) o But extrinsic rewards that are informative positive feedback rather than a way to control behaviour – can increase intrinsic motivation Psychodynamic and Humanistic Theories  Emphasize that unconscious motives and tensions guide how we act and feel  Humanist Maslow argues that a key motive = striving for personal growth o Deficiency needs  concerned with physical & social survival o Growth needs  uniquely human and motivate us to develop our potential  Needs hierarchy  idea proposed by Maslow that there is a progression of needs (our needs = arranged in a hierarchy) containing deficiency needs at the bottom and growth needs at the top o Once basic needs are satisfied, we focus on our needs for safety and security, then we go to next highest level, and so on o Progression if lower needs are satisfied, regression if lower needs are not met o At top = self-actualization  Self-actualization  the need to fulfill our potential, the ultimate human motive  Still doesn’t explain things like anorexia Hunger and Weight Regulation The Physiology of Hunger  Metabolism  the body’s rate of energy (or caloric) utilization o Basal metabolism = resting, continuous metabolic work of body cells  Body attempts to maintain homeostasis by regulating food intake o “short-term signals” –produce hunger to start meals and stop food intake by producing “satiety” (feeling full) o “long-term signals” – adjust appetite and metabolism to adjust for when you overeat or undereat in the short-term  hunger is not necessarily linked to immediate energy needs  homeostatic mechanisms are designed to prevent you from “running low” on energy  set point  internal physiological standard around which body weight is regulated - some disagree with this theory Signals that Start and Terminate a Meal  don’t need a stomach to feel hungry or full  when you eat, digestive enzymes break food down into various nutrients  one key nutrient = glucose  simple sugar that is the body’s major source of immediately usable fuel  after a meal, some glucose is transported into cells to provide energy, but a large portion is transferred to your liver and fat cells, where it is converted into other nutrients and stored for later use  sensors in the hypothalamus and liver monitor blood glucose concentrations  when blood glucose levels decrease, the liver responds by converting stored nutrients back into glucose  produces a drop-rise glucose pattern  How do we know to stop eating? o Stomach and intestinal distention = “satiety signals”  Walls of these organs stretch as food fills them up, sending nerve signals to the brain  Stomach does not need to be “full” – depends on content of food  Can still feel full without a stomach due to chemical signals  intestines respond to food by releasing hormones – called peptides- that help terminate meals  Ex: CCK (Cholecystokinin)  released in bloodstream by small intestine as food arrives from stomach – travels to the brain and stimulates receptors in several regions that decrease easting o Makes you feel full (it is a satiety signal) Signals that Regulate General Appetite & Weight  Fat cells actively regulate food intake and weight by secreting leptin  hormone that decreases appetite  As we gain fat, more leptin is secreted reaching the brain – detected by neurons – these leptin signals influence neural pathways to decrease appetite and increase energy expenditure  Does not directly make us feel full, but regulates appetite but increasing the potency of these other signals o As we gain fat and secrete more leptin, we tend to eat less because these mealtime satiety factors make us feel full sooner o High lepton levels tell the brain “THERE IS PLENTLY OF FAT TISSUE. IT S TIME TO EAT LESS”.  Evidence came from experimenting on genetically obese rights (have ob gene) = obesity o These mice lack leptin – overeat and become obese o Daily leptin injections injections reduce their appetite and increase their energy expenditure and the mice become thinner o Mice with db gene – have leptin but cannot detect the signal – therefore leptin injections = useless Brain Mechanisms  Early experiments point to 2 regions of hunger regulation 1. Lateral hypothalamus (LH)  stimulation causes hunger ON 2. Ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH)  stimulation causes hunger OFF  Later it was found these aren’t really hunger on/off centres  Paraventricular nucleus (PVN)  cluster of neurons packed with receptor sites for various transmitters that simulate or reduce appetite o Integrates different signals that influence metabolic and digestive processes o Neuropeptide Y  one of these transmitters – powerful appetite stimulant o When leptin reaches the hypothalamus, it seems to INHIBIT the activity of PVN & neuropeptide Y, therefore reducing appetite o But when losing fat, less leptin is secreted and therefore neuropeptide Y neurons become more active, increasing appetite Research Frontiers: Excessive Exercise: Activity Anorexia  if a rat is allowed limited access to food and unlimited access to a running wheel except during the meal period, a condition called ACTIVITY ANOREXIA develops  animals engage in increasing amounts of running, eat less, and lose weight – can become dangerous  animal model of human eating disorder anorexia nervosa  can develop conditioned taste aversions (more so for novel foods than familiar foods)  WHEEL ITSELF SUPPRESSES FEEDING  Wheel running has rewarding effect by activating brain’s opioid system Physiological Aspects of Hunger  Our beliefs about caloric intake and how much we last ate influences what we eat  Attitudes and habits affect hunger (eating in front of tv, don’t leave food on plate)  Social pressures  In classic study, it was found that women overestimate how thin men want them to be, and men overestimated how bulky women want them to be  Women perceive themselves as heavier than ideal (want to lose weight), whereas men view their body shapes as close to ideal (content)  Objectification theory  western culture teaches women to view their bodies as objects, much as external observers would. o Increases body shame and anxiety, eating disorders Environmental and Cultural Factors What influences how much we eat?  Food availability = most obvious regulator of eating (if you live in poverty, low-cost fast food)  Food taste and variety – food variety increases consumption (think buffet)  Food cues can trigger hunger (ie seeing popcorn at a movie theatre makes you hungry, even if you weren’t before)  Eat more when dining with others rather than alone Obesity  Health canada suggests that a BMI (body mass index) between 25 to 29.9 = overweight  Over 30 = obese Genes & Environment  Genes & environment both influence our weight  Heredity influences our basal metabolic rate and tendency to store energy as either fat or lean tissue  Over 200 genes identified as possible contributors to human obesity – usually combined effect of these genes it what increasing the risk  Obesity rates in US & CANADA have increased significantly in recent decades because of: o Availability of fast-food o Emphasis on getting best value – supersizing of menu items o Technology that decreases the need for daily physical activity  EX: PIMA INDIANS th o Obesity was rare before 20 century with this group o But after WWII, obesity rates increased as they adopted a Westernized lifestyle o Always had a genetic predisposition to obesity, but it never came out until they changed their way of life!!! Dieting & Weight Loss  Fat people tend to stay fat o Obese people have higher insulin levels which increases the conversion of glucose into fat o Makes it harder to exercise o Dieting slows basal metabolism b/c the body responds to food deprivation with decreased energy expenditure o Main motivation for weight loss = social & psychological concerns Psychological Applications: The Battle to Control Eating And Weight  Nutritionally rich food makes us full faster than an equal volume of food with no nutritional value  Variety increases food consumption (buffet)  Cues that predict the arrival of food (smell of bakery) make us hungry o Stimulates release of insulin – increased hunger  Appetizers INCREASE appetite o Provides more variety to meal – more consumption o Hunger cue  increases insulin secretion and drops blood glucose levels  How to lose weight o Weight lost from working out will be regained much slower than weight lost from dieting (this is b/c weight loss from dieting is due to a loss of both lean and body mass and fat, whereas weight loss from exercise is due to a loss of fat) Sexual Motivation Sexual Behaviour: Patterns & Changes  Single adults who cohabit = most sexually active, then married adults, then single adults who do not cohabit  Premarital sex has been increasing  trend toward sexual activity at a young age and a tendency to delay marriage The Sexual Response Cycle  Sexual response cycle  4 stages o Excitement phase  arousal builds, blood flow increases to genitals and nipples and breasts – pooling and causing these areas to swell = vasocongestion – genitals become erect / lubricated – muscle tension increases throughout body o Plateau phase  respiration, heart rate, vasocongestion, and muscle tension continue to build until there is enough muscle tension to trigger orgasm o Orgasm phase  males: rhythmic contractions of internal organs and muscle tissue surrounding the urethra project semen out of out the penis , efmales: rhythmic contractions of the outer third of the vagina, surrounding muscles, and the uterus o Resolution phase  arousal decreases and genital organs and tissue return to normal condition – CAN’T HAVE AN ORGASM AT THIS TIME (this is called refractory period) o WOMEN: may have more orgasms after Hormonal Influences  Hypothalamus = plays key role in sexual motivation o Controls pituitary gland which regulates the secretion of hormones called GONADOTROPINS into the bloodstream  in turn, these hormones affect the rate at which the gonads (testes in males, ovaries in females) secrete androgens (male sex hormone - testosterone) and estrogens (female sex hormone)  Sex hormones have organizational effects  direct the development of male & female sex characteristics o In womb, male & female embryos form a gonad that has the potential to develop into either testes or ovaries o If genetically male, the testes release sex hormones during a key period of prenatal development – typically is sufficient androgen activity to produce a male pattern of development o Later, hypothalamus secretes more sex hormones when puberty is hit o For female embryos, in the absence of sufficient androgen activity during this prenatal period, a female pattern of development ensues o At puberty hypothalamus stimulates the release of sex hormones from the ovaries on a cyclical basis that regulates the female menstrual cycle  Sex hormones have activational effects  stimulate sexual desire and behaviour o These effects begin at puberty when gonads start secreting hormones o Male readiness for sex = governed by environmental stimuli o Whereas females are sexually receptive only during periods of high estrogen secretion o But in humans, HORMONAL FLUCTUATIONS HAVE LITTLE EFFECT ON AROUSAL! o In humans, androgens (not estrogens) have the primary influence on sexual desire  but sexual desire does not fluctuate like a yoyo o Women who have their ovaries or adrenal glands removed (where their sex hormones are secreted) & men who have their testes removed experience a gradual loss of sexual desire  but can be reversed by administering sex hormones!! The Psychology of Sex  Begins w/ sexual desire and sexual stimulus perceived positively Sexual Fantasy  Fantasy illustrates how mental processes can affect physiological functioning  Sexual fantasies alone may trigger erection and orgasm Desire, Arousal, and Sexual Dysfunction  Stress, fatigue, and anger at one’s partner can lead to temporary arousal problems  Sexual dysfunction  chronic, impaired sexual functioning that distresses a person o May result from injuries, diseases, and drug effects, or psychological causes (child abuse, assault) Cultural & Environmental Influences Cultural Norms  Our view of sex is determined by our culture  What is considered proper, moral, and desirable varies across cultures o Ex: Marquesas encourage early sexual behaviour, kids sleep in same room as parents, parents might masturbate the kids, kids learn to have sex from an adult of opposite sex, etc Arousing Environmental Stimuli  Environment affects sexuality by providing sexually arousing stimuli o Ex: seeing a partner undress o Stimuli must be perceived POSITIVELY Pornography, Sexual Violence, and Sexual Attitudes  Ongoing debate whether exposure to pornography fosters sexual violence against women  Most rapes NOT committed by strangers  2 Psychological Viewpoints to affects of porn: o social learning theory  people learn through observation – porn models “rape myths”; that sex is impersonal and men are entitled to sex whenever and dominate women – thus, men who view this become more likely to treat women as objects and sexually aggress towards them o catharsis principle  as inborn aggressive and sexual impulses build up, actions that release this tension provide a “catharsis” that temporarily returns us to a more balanced physiological state  AKA PORN = SAFE OUTLET for releasing sexual tension, and should decrease sexually aggressive behaviour toward women  EXPERIMENT: 4 groups that watched different films (one was consensual love, one was non-sexual, 2 were rapes (one of which was a ‘rape myth’ – where woman disagreed at first and then gave into it) o Then interacted with a woman who purposely angered ½ the participants o Watching the rape myth film increased aggression for both angered and non- angered men o For angered men, aggression increased even when they saw the rape where the woman suffered o Other films did not increase aggression o THUS, RESEARCH SHOWS THAT VIOLENT SEX FILMS DO INCREASE MEN’S AGGRESSIVE BEAHVIOUR TOWARDS WOMEN (but not men) Sexual Orientation  Sexual orientation  refers to one’s emotional and erotic preference for partners of a particular sex Prevalence of Different Sexual Orientations  3 dimensions to sexual orientation o self identity o sexual attraction o actual sexual behaviour  generally, more men and women report same-sex attraction and same-sex activity than view themselves as homosexual or bisexual Determinants of Sexual Orientation  studies of homosexual adults have indicated that there is not one specific pattern / trend that leads to a particular sexual orientation  however, one notable pattern = in childhood, homosexual men and women felt somehow DIFFERENT o more likely to engage in gender non-conforming behaviours o lesbians more likely to be considered tomboys when kids  some say the closer the genetic relatedness, the higher the concordance rates for sexual orientation (ie if brother is gay)  altering animals’ prenatal exposure to sex hormones can influence their sexual orientation o brain develops a neural pattern that predisposes organisms to prefer either female or male sex patterns, depending on whether prenatal sex hormone activity follows a masculine or feminine path o NO CLEAR EVIDENCE FOR HUMANS  Different personality styles steer children toward different socialization experiences, which then play the key role in determining sexual orientation  NO SINGLE FACTOR DETERMINES SEXUAL ORIENTATION!!! Achievement Motivation  Need for achievement  represents the desire to accomplish tasks and attain standards of excellence Motivation for Success: The Thrill of Victory  2 reasons people strive for success o positively oriented motive for success  these people focus on MASTERY GOALS and PERFORMANCE-APROACH GOALS  mastery goals: reflect intrinsic motivation like “I want to learn as much as possible”  these peoples study hard & focus on material well  performance-a
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