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PSYCHOLOGY text notes

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Psychology 1000
John Campbell

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Human Language: Psycholinguistics Psycholinguistics  An Investigation of Language Functions, Models, and Brain relationships HINT: 1. MODULARITY 2.CONNECTIONISM * Slide 20 -monkeys and other apes will never be able to speak because of their flat tounge Monday January 14 2012 Reasoning and Problem Solving: The acts of Cognition Mental Representations Mental representations take variety of forms including: Images Ideas Concepts Principles Cognition Cognition consists of the re-organization and manipulation of mental representations in a goal directed manner There are two major forms of reasoning we may employ in this process: 1 Deductive. 2 Inductive  Deductive Reasoning -Reason from general principles to a conclusion -Useful process in forming hypotheses People can read words outloud faster than them saying whether and object is inamite or inamite. Showing pictures rather than words causes a faster response.  Inductive Reasoning -Start with specific facts and try to develop a general principle RESEARCH path is circular Order in which stimuli is available  Stumbling Blocks in Reasoning -Distraction by irrelevant information Ie. “redhearings” misleading info played in story plot of movies ex. Who the bad guy is -Failure to apply deductive rules -Belief bias Ex. Picture of ALEGED rapist on newspaper before he is guilty -Mental set Easy to induce in group of people, will bias you to deal with info in a set fashion = easy to make errors  Problem-Solving Schemata -Step-by-step scripts for selecting information and solving special problems *provides a means of solving that special problem -The use of problem-solving schemata is an important aspect of expert knowledge *how quickly experts solve problems vs. us solving problems  Algorithms -Formulas or procedures for generating correct solutions *always produces the best answer  Heuristics -Mental shortcuts that may or may not provide correct solutions *can be affected by incomplete schemata, belief biases, recent information Algorithms  An Algorithm is a specific process account of a action series which always produces a correct answer  We can determine the most likely algorithm for a task without knowing the specific areas where the task is performed.  Take a math example: if children are using a counting algorithm they should require more time to solve problems which involve more counting.  If the amount of counting required does not affect the time taken to solve the problem then they must be using another process, for example, fact retrieval. * Problem-Solving Heuristics  Means-ends analysis -Identify differences between present state and goal state -Make changes to reduce the differences *want to see a concert, and need to get there. Reformulating to get closer to the solution  Subgoal analysis -Take intermediate steps toward an ultimate solution  Representativeness Heuristic -Used to infer how closely something or someone fits our prototype for a particular concept  Availability Heuristic -Leads us to base judgments on the availability of information in memory  Confirmation bias -The tendency to look for evidence that will confirm beliefs Problem Solving  Two types of problems -Those which bear a resemblance to past problems. -Those which are unique  For those Unique problems memory alone is insufficient to provide a solution  A solution here requires Creative or Productive thinking  Both Memory use and Productive thinking reflect Realistic thinking in relation to an objective situation  This may be contrasted to Autistic thinking which is determined primarily by subjective needs and wishes  In most instances some mixture of Realistic and Autistic thinking is in operation  These types of problem solving approaches fall into the larger category of Intentional problem solving  This type of problem solving may be subject to limitations on success based upon past experience or Habitual ways of approaching problems  One aspect of Habitual approach is known as Set.  Set is related to the way one is initially prepared to appraise and initiate a solution to a problem  Lets see if we can demonstrate the effects of set  A special type of Set is known as Functional fixedness  This type of set prevents us from seeing new and useful ways of using facts or objects to which a specific function has been attached by Habit and /or Tradition Functional Fixedness Group 1 received the components exactly as outlined and showed only a 41% success rate in breaking functional fixedness to solve the problem Group 2 received the components with the matches and the thumb tacks in piles beside their boxes 86% of group 2 subjects succeeded in breaking functional fixedness to solve the problem Problem Solving  Sudden Insight – the “aha!” solution *ex. Cant remember name of celeb, hours, days, weeks later finally remember  This type of Creative or Insightful solution is less common than would subjectively seem to be the case.  It is widely held that the relief or satisfaction of realizing the solution may serve to obscure the route that led to the solution  Duncker (1945) argued that problem solving consists of a series of progressively more specific formulations of the problem each based in part upon the previous reformulation.  Duncker’s Tumor problem provides the clearest support for this view of problem solving Duncker’s Tumor problem  University students were presented with the following problem:  Given an inoperable tumor and a ray that at high intensities would destroy both healthy and diseased tissue, how can the tumor be destroyed without damaging the surrounding tissue Responses fit a series of stages  Stage I - Initial responses were a reformulation of the problem in a goal directed manner I.e., “general or essential properties of a solution” Solutions offered here were not practical e.g., “desensitize healthy tissue”  Stage II – solutions with functional value – when X is achieved the problem will be solved.  Stage III – how to achieve X  Stage II – Get the ray to the tumor without damaging healthy tissue  Stage III – a) Focus ray with lenses (not possible for X-ray) – thus reject  Stage III – b) Use several converging rays each too weak to hurt healthy tissue but where they converge strong enough to destroy tumor. This outline of problem solving is still the basis for current interpretations of Intentional Problem Solving Lecture 4 Wednesday January 16 2012h Intelligence Intelligence= A concept that refers to individual differences in abilities to: Acquire knowledge Think and reason effectively Deal adaptively with the environment The Psychometric Approach to Intelligence Psychometrics: the statistical study of psychological tests The g factor (Spearman, 1923)  Intelligence performance governed by: -General intelligence (g) -Specific abilities Thurstone’s primary abilities  Intelligence performance governed only by specific abilities Theories Spearman’s g factor (1904) - a theory of general intelligence termed g  G is a kind of mental energy which flows into everything a person does  A person who is good at mathematics is probably also good at reading comprehension, has a wide vocabulary, etc.  Thus g or general intelligence is a type of mental energy which allows one to be consistently good or poor at a variety of different tasks  In addition to g Spearman also proposed that there were special abilities termed s  S is the mental energy specific to a particular task  Therefore if you are good at math it is a combination of g and s  S is necessary to account for variability across tasks (better at some than others) hurstone’s (1938) Primary Mental Abilities  Seven PrTimary Mental Abilities 1 Spatial visualization 2 Perceptual Speed 3 Numerical:mathematical abilities 4 Verbal Meaning: can you define words, and put them into sentences 5 Memory: memorize list 6 Word Fluency: thesaurus 7 Reasoning: solving puzzles, solution to problems  Abilities are viewed as relatively independent of one another I.e., a person high in spatial ability maybe low in verbal meaning  Although more expansive than Spearman’s theory it is not incompatible with it  Task analyses led Thurstone to believe these seven abilities were required  Many if not most activities require more than one primary ability E.g., Reading – requires – verbal meaning, word fluency, memory and reasoning Guilford’s (1961) Structure of Intellect Recall Spearman’s g & s Thurstones 7 Primary Mental Abilities (too vague)  Guilford’s model proposed 120 factors 3 Basic: 1.Operations (act of thinking) 2.Contents (terms of thinking –words, symbols) 3.Products (ideas we come up with) Within each basic category there are several sub factors  Operations- Are composed of cognition, memory, divergent thinking, convergent thinking & evaluation  Contents- Are composed of figural, symbolic, semantic, behavioral  Products- Composed of implications, transformations, systems, relations, classes & units Guilfords model is conceived of as a three dimensional matrix  He postulates that at least one sub-factor from each category is present/necessary to perform a task E.g., Reading involves semantics (contents) cognitive, memory, evaluation (operations) relations, implications (products) Burt-Vernon Theory of Intelligence Hierarchical Theory  Thus unlike Thurstone or Guilford the abilities are NOT viewed as independent but rather certain abilities are nested within others - Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence analytical: book smart Practical: street smarts Creative: artists Jensen’s Level I & Level II Theory Arthur Jensen argued that existing theories were overly complex (Guilford?)  proposed that all tasks could be measured based upon the degree to which they required Level I and Level II abilities -Level I is composed of simple rote memory No intentional or conscious transformation of input prior to output (e.g., serial recall, give back items in the same order that was given to you) -Level II is composed of complex mental abilities Input requires conscious transformation prior to output (e.g., recall list in categories), classify them and then report them, higher intelligence  In this approach Intelligence would be measured on the basis of the types of tasks completed  The more tasks completed correctly requiring complex abilities the higher a person’s intelligence would be rated Eg., in a multiple choice exam questions can be rated 1) Factual, 2) Comprehension, & 3) Higher order Regardless of the IQ test employed higher IQ test takers should not only get more questions correct they should get more of types 2 & 3 correct Assessment of Intelligence Classical Assessment Psychometric approach These include Stanford Binet, WAIS, MAB, Raven’s matrices, Porteus Mazes,  Binet scales were developed to originally provide assessment of children in France for the purpose of identifying those in need of remedial education -First scale – the Binet-Simon scale was issued in 1905. Became Stanford-Binet when revised for North America at Stanford University by Terman 30 tests arranged in order of increasing difficulty -child continued until a series of consecutive wrong answers were obtained -Repeated testing across many different children revealed that at a given age the majority of children got approx the same number of questions correct –a few got less and a few got more -This led to the first normative data set for performance comparison Classical Assessment Psychometric approach These include Stanford Binet, WAIS, MAB, Raven’s matrices, Porteus Mazes, Binet scales were developed to originally provide assessment of children in France for the purpose of identifying those in need of remedial education In 1908 Binet introduced the concept of Mental Age (MA). William Stern (1916) indicated how it could be used in conjunction with chronological age (CA) to produce an Intelligence Quotient Mental age is based upon the level of tasks completed by a normal group of children at a given chronological age If a child completes the tasks normally done by children at age 8 CA then regardless of that child’s actual CA their Mental Age is deemed to be 8 Intelligence  Binet’s Assumptions Mental abilities develop with age The rate at which people gain mental competence is characteristic of the person and is constant over time -if you can do what the average person your age can do youre 100 -less than the average person your age is less than 100 -more than the average person your age is +100  Types of Tests Achievement Tests =Designed to discover how much someone knows Aptitude Tests =Measure potential for future learning and performance Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)  This was the first Adult intelligence test (Weschler, 1939)  The test is divided into two parts which roughly correspond to the divisions proposed by Burt & Vernon = Verbal & Performance Each have 4 subsets of test items Verbal: Vocabulary, Simple arithmetic, Information, Judgment Performance: Block design, Incomplete pictures, Puzzles, Pictures to arrange as a story  Test produces multiple scores -A score for each subtest -An aggregate score for each major section -Overall IQ score Multidimensional Aptitude Battery (MAB)  MAB (Jackson, 1983)  IQ measures on this test correlate r=.91 with those from the WAIS-R  Advantage is that it is entirely paper & pencil  This allows for the testing of multiple persons simultaneously a huge cost advantage for users  Also split into 2 sections – Verbal & Performance= Each section has 5 subtests vs the 4 in the WAIS st Lecture 5 Monday January 21 2012 Continuing….Intelligence Other Psychometric Approaches to Intelligence Cattell and Horn’s Theory  Crystallized intelligence Ability to apply previously learned knowledge to current problems  Fluid intelligence Ability to deal with novel problem-solving situations without any previous knowledge -fluid is complex problems where you have to be analytical and break down the problem -with age fluid intelligence decreases -language is a primary component of a crystalized intelligence Garner’s (1983) Multiple Intellegences There are six relatively independent intelligences  Linguistic, mathematical, visual-spatial =Tested by current intelligence tests  Musical, body-kinesthetic, personal =Not tested by current intelligence tests Savants : Cognitively disabled people with a striking skill in a specific area, like music or math ability. -we are missing other intelligences, ei musical, can be indirect effects music can be argued as another form of mathematics -  Emotional Intelligence Ability to read other’s emotions accurately Respond accurately to them Motivate oneself Be aware of one’s own emotions Control one’s emotional responses - - - Controversy  All of the Classical psychometric tests we have examined up to this point have been subject to the criticism that they have cultural biases Two Unique tests have been developed to address this issue =Raven’s Progressive Matrices & Porteus Mazes -white people scored higher than black people, argued tests should be written in black english Types of Reliability  Test-retest reliability Assessed by administering the measure to the same group of participants twice and correlating scores  Internal consistency All of the items of the test should measure the same thing  Interjudge reliability Consistency of measurement when different people score the same test - - - Types of Validity  Construct Does a test measure what it is supposed to measure?  Content Do the items on a test measure all the knowledge or skills that comprise the construct?  Predictive How well does the test score predict criterion measures? -people hire psychologists for the predictive ability test Alternative Assessment Techniques  Reaction Time (RT) Vernon Assumption is that as RT goes down IQ goes up (I.e., more intelligent persons process information more quickly) This assumption is in line with the assumption upon which speeded items in the classical tests were based. -why is time important in these tests - -  Reaction Time & IQ Simple RT: Subject holds down button and when detects light releases button RT is time from start of light to release of button Decision RT: Subject holds down button, 1,2,4,8 light array & subject must hit button corresponding to number of lights - - - Simple RT & Light Decision RT  RT measures are inversely related to performance on classical IQ tests – r = -.30 (I.e., RT goes down as IQ goes up) RT goes up as number of lights (bits of information) increase  STM RT :Subjects are presented a digit string then a probe (single digit) task is whether probe was in original stri
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