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Chapter 9 – Thought, Language, and Intelligence Language The Nature and Structure of Language • Language – a system of symbols and rules for combining these symbols in ways that can produce an almost infinite number of possible messages and meanings o Three critical properties of language:  Symbolic: Uses sounds, written signs, or gestures to refer to objects, events, ideas, and feelings • Displacement – capacity of language to represent objects and conditions that aren’t physically present  Structure: Has rules that govern how symbols can be combined to create meaningful communication units  Generative: Symbols can be combined to generate an almost infinite number of messages Language Structure • Surface structure – consists of the way symbols are combined within a given language o Syntax – the rules for the combination of symbols • Deep structure – refers to the underlying meaning of the combined symbols o Semantics – the rules for connecting the symbols to what they represent • Example: “Flying planes can be dangerous.” (surface) o Deep 1: Planes are dangerous o Deep 2: Piloting a plane is dangerous • Noam Chomsky: Transformational grammar o Rules transform meaning of the deep structure to sequence of the surface structure o Sentence  Phrases  Words  Morphemes  Phonemes • Phonemes – smallest units of sound recognized as separate in a given language • Morphemes – smallest units of meaning in a language o Include base words, prefixes, suffixes, etc. Humor • Various forms of humor based on language: o Phonological ambiguity – confusion of sounds o Lexical ambiguity – confusion or double meaning of words o Syntactic ambiguity – confusion of structure o Semantic ambiguity – confusion of meaning • Children progress from phonological and lexical humor to syntactic and semantic Acquiring a Language • Biological Foundations o Several facts suggest biological basis for language acquisition  Human children, despite limited thinking skills, begin to master language at early life without formal instruction o Between 1-3 months: infants vocalize entire range of phonemes found in world’s languages (cooing) o By 2 months, infacts show phoneme discrimination o About six months: infants begin to make sounds of their native tongue and to discard those of other languages o Linguists believe there exists a critical period between infancy and puberty when language is most easily learned o Can children form language without hearing others speak?  Wild children – no  Isolated children – maybe  Lack adult models for language (e.g. deaf kids with parents who don’t use sign language) – maybe • Can develop signs with rudimentary syntax  Other animals - no o Sex differences:  Men who suffer left hemisphere strokes are more likely than women to show severe aphasic symptoms (disruption in speech comprehension and/or production) • Suggests that women may share more language function with right hemisphere • Social Learning Processes o Motherese – high pitched intonation used by parents to converse with infants o B.F. Skinner developed operant conditioning explanation for language acquisition  Children’s language development is strongly governed by adults’ reinforcing appropriate language and non-reinforcing of inappropriate verbalization  Problems: • Children learn much too fast • Parents typically do not correct grammar as much as “truth value” o Telegraphic speech – two word sentences uttered during second year of life that consist of a noun and verb (e.g. “Want cookie”) • Bilingualism: Learning a Second Language o Learned best and spoken most fluently when learned during critical period of childhood o If both languages are learned at early age, they often function in the same brain region Linguistic Influences on Thinking • Empiricists – thought is a mental image • Behaviourists – thought is a motor action • Linguistic relativity hypothesis – language not only influences, but also determines what we are capable of thinking o Multiple studies have disproved the determination part • Modern view is that language can influence how we think, how efficiently we categorize our experiences, and how much detail we attend to in our daily life experience • Language also influences how well we think in certain domains o English children consistently score lower than Asian children in mathematical skills due to words and symbols used in each language to represent numbers  Chinese uses easier system to learn numbers (11 = “ten one”)  English speakers must use more complex system (11 = “eleven”) • Propositional thought – a form of linguistically based thought that expresses a statement in subject-predicate thought • Imaginal thought – a form of thinking that uses images that can be from any sense modality • Motoric thought – mental representations of motor movements Concepts and Propositions • Propositions – statements that express facts o Consist of concepts combined in a particular way  Typically, one concept is a subject, another is a predicate • Concepts – basic units of semantic memory (mental categories into which we place objects, activities, abstractions, and events that have essential features in common) • Prototypes – most typical and familiar members of a class that defines a concept o Use of prototypes is most elementary method of forming concepts  Requires only that we note similarities among objects Reasoning and Problem Solving Reasoning • Two types of reasoning: o Deductive reasoning – reasoning from a general principle to a specific case  Basis of formal mathematics and logic  Viewed as stronger and more valid reasoning because conclusion cannot be false if premises are true  Syllogism: If all humans are mortal (first premise), and Socrates is a human (second premise), then Socrates must be mortal (conclusion) o Inductive reasoning – reasoning from specific facts to develop a general principle  Leads to likelihood rather than certainty  New observations may disprove conclusion • Stumbling Blocks in Reasoning o Distraction by irrelevant information – people take into account irrelevant information that leads them astray o Failure to apply deductive rules – people think of problem solving methods as to be used only in certain situations and cannot apply to new problems o Belief bias – tendency to abandon logical rules in favour of personal beliefs  Students claimed conclusion was not correct to following syllogism: All things that are smoked are good for one’s health, cigarettes are smoked, therefore cigarettes are good for one’s health Problem Solving • Four stages of problem solving: o Understanding, or framing, the problem – problem must be framed optimally to have chance of generating an effective solution o Generating potential solutions – must determine which procedures and explanations will be considered, and which solutions are consistent with evidence o Testing the solutions – remaining solutions must be tested and evaluated  Mental set – tendency to stick to solutions that have worked in past - Can result in less effective problem solving o Evaluating results • Problem solving schemas – step by step scripts for selecting information and solving specialized classes of problems • Once we have mastered the process we are completing, and seem to ‘know what we’re doing’ we no longer have to engage in step-by-step formal problem-solving procedures. o Experts rely on schemas that are developed with experience o Development of expertise is accompanied by alterations in brain functioning that increase processing efficiency o Working memory  weakest link in the human mind. • Algorithms and heuristics o Algorithms – formulas or procedures that automatically generate correct solutions o Heuristics – general problem solving strategies that are applied to certain classes of situations  Means end analysis – identify differences between present situation and one’s desired state/goal and make changes to reduce differences - Have 30 pages to write. Have 0 Done. The present situation is 0 pages written, the desired end state is a 30-page paper; what, specifically, needs to be done to reduce that discrepancy, and how are you going to do it?  Subgoal analysis – people can attack a large problem by formulating subgoals or intermediate steps toward a solution - It is hard to write 30 pages in one night. So, using ‘Subgoal analysis’ one will break down the work into choosing a topic, formulating a hypothesis, organizing your information, and then writing your paper a little bit at a time. • Uncertainty, heuristics, and decision making o Representativeness heuristic – rule of thumb in estimating probability that an object or event belongs to a certain category based on extent to which it represents a prototype of the category  Tversky and Kahneman note that people confused representativeness with probability (Linda the bank teller femanist) o Availability heuristic – rule of thumb used to make likelihood judgments based on how easily examples of that category of events come to mind or are available in memory  Example: people were less likely to book flights following September 11 , since the memory of the event is readily accessible • Confirmation bias – people tend to look for evidence that will confirm what they currently believe rather than look for evidence that could disconfirm their beliefs • Sternberg and Davidson found that correct solutions to insight problems involve: o Selective encoding – choosing what information matters o Selective combination – choosing what’s important within chosen information o Selective comparison – out of chosen information, how does it apply to the problem Psychological Applications • Divergent thinking – the generation of novel ideas that depart from the norm. The ability to apply concepts or propositions from one domain to another unrelated domain in a manner that produces a new insight. Refusing to be constrained by traditional approaches to the problem. • Functional fixedness – the tendency to be so fixed in their perception of the proper function of an object or procedure that they are blinded to new ways of using it. • Incubation – when creative solutions seem to appear out of the blue, suddenly popping into the problem solvers mind in a flash of insight after the problem solver has temporarily given up and put the problem aside. It is as if the problem is ‘incubating’ and being worked on at a subconscious level. ‘In Review’ Section on page 376. Intelligence • Concept or construct that refers to the ability to acquire knowledge, to think and reason effectively, and to deal adaptively with the environment Intelligence in Historical Perspective • Sir Francis Galton o Showed through study of family trees that eminence and genius seemed to occur across generations with certain families o Exhibited belief bias, and dismissed fact that successful people often came from privileged environments o Approach to mental skills measurement fell into disfavour because measures of nervous system efficiency proved unrelated to socially relevant measures of mental ability • Alfred Binet o Developed test to help identify children who require educational help at early age o Made two assumptions about intelligence:  Mental abilities develop with age  Rate at which people gain mental competence is a characteristic of the person and is fairly constant over time o Tests would result in score called mental age (age at which a child can solve problems for) o William Stern provided a relative score called intelligence quotient  IQ = (Mental age / Actual age) x 100 o Problem is that increases in mental age begin to slow down dramatically around age 16 o Deviation IQ – modern score that represents how much standardized distance a score is above or below the mean of a particular sample • The Stanford-Binet and Wechsler Scales o Lewis Terman revised Binet’s test, creating the Stanford-Binet test o David Wechsler developed intelligence tests for adults (WAIS), children (WISC), and preschoolers (WPPSI)  Most widely used intelligence tests  Consists of series of subtests that fall into verbal tests and performance tests  The test yields three different summary scores: a Verbal IQ based on the sum of the Verbal subscales; a Performance IQ based on the Performance subscales; and a Full-Scale IQ based on all the scales. • Group tests of aptitude and achievement o Using written tests for selective purposes highlights an issue Binet faced:  Should university applicants be given an achievement test (how much they have learned in high school) or an aptitude test (measure applicant’s potential for future learning and performance)? Scientific Standard for Psychological Tests • Psychological test – a method for measuring individual differences related to some psychological concept, or construct, based on a sample of relevant behaviour in a scientifically designed and controlled situation • Reliability – consistency of measurement o Test-retest reliability – extent to which scores on a presumably stable characteristic are consistent over time o Internal consistency – extent to which an experiment produces clear causal conclusions (will be high when there is no confounding of variables) Has to do with the consistency of measurement within the test itself. o Interjudge reliability – extent to which different observers or scorers agree in their scoring of a particular test or observed behaviour • Validity – how well a test actually measures what it is designed to measure o Construct validity – extent to which a test measures the psychological construct (e.g. intelligence, anxiety) that it is purported to measure o Content validity – extent to which the test items adequately sample the domain that the test is supposed to measure o Predictive validity – ability of a test to predict future outcomes that are influenced by the characteristic measured by that test • Standardization and norms o Standardization – refers to (1) creating a standard set of procedures for administering a test or making observations, and (2) deriving norms to which an individual’s performance can be compared o Norms – test scores derived from a relevant sample used to evaluate individuals’ scores o Normal distribution of intelligence tests has an average of 100. When norms are collected for mental skills the scores usually form a bell-shaped curve known as a ‘normal distribution’. The Nature of Intelligence • Two major approaches to studying intelligence: o Psychometric: maps the structure of intellect and specifies the kinds of mental ability that underlie test performance o Cognitive: studies specific thought processes that underlie mental competencies • Psychometric Approach o Psychometrics – statistical study of psychological tests  Standardization, reliability, and validity are all psychometric concepts  Tries to identify and measure abilities that underlie individual differences in performance on tests  Factor analysis – analysis of patterns of correlation between test scores in order to discover clusters of measures that correlate highly with one another but not with measures in other clusters (Example: if four tests were highly correlated with each other, and all required subjects to solve mathematical problems, the underlying factor may be mathematical reasoning ability)  Some believe intelligence is a single global mental capacity, while others regard it is a set of specific abilities to do different types of thinking o The “g” factor  Charles Spearman found that school grades among different subjects were highly correlated, but were not perfect  Found also in intelligence tests  Concluded that intellectual performance is determined partly by general intelligence (“g”) and partly by other special abilities required to perform a particular task  Example: performance in a mathematics course would depend mainly on the “g” factor of the individual, but also ability to learn mathematics o Intelligence as specific mental abilities  L. L. Thurstone concluded that human mental performance depends not on a general factor, but seven distinct abilities, called primary mental abilities (spatial, perceptual speed, numerical, verbal meaning, memory, verbal fluency, and inductive reasoning) o Crystallized and fluid intelligence  Horn and Cattell divided Spearman’s “g” factor into two correlated but distinct abilities  Crystallized intelligence – the ability to apply previously acquired knowledge to current problems • Depends largely on ability to retrieve information and previously learned problem solving schemas from long term memory  Fluid intelligence – the ability to deal with novel problem solving situations for which personal experience does not provide a solution  Fluid intelligence requires the ability to reason abstractly, think logically, and manage information in working (short-term) memory so that new problems can be solved on the ‘blackboard of the mind’.  Throughout life, people progress from using fluid intelligence to crystallized intelligence because everyday situations become less and less new to us. o Multiple intelligences  Howard Gardner advanced a theory of multiple intelligences that define six distinct varieties of intelligence (linguistic, mathematical, visual-spatial, musical, body-kinesthetic, and personal)  Bases argument on studies of brain damaged, which leave some abilities devastated, while sparing others • Savants – intellectually disabled in a general sense, but exhibit striking skills in specific areas o Emotional intelligence – the ability to read others’ emotions accurately, to respond to them appropriately, to motivate oneself, to be aware of one’s own emotions, and to regulate and control one’s own emotional responses • Cognitive Process Approaches o Psychometric theories of intelligence are statistically sophisticated ways of describing how people differ from one another; however, what psychometric theories do not explain is why people vary in these ways. o Cognitive process theories try to explain why people vary in intelligence by relating types of individual variation described in the psychometric approach to various cognitive skills o Sternberg’s triarchic theory – addresses both the psychological processes involved in intelligent behaviour and the diverse forms that intelligence can take  Divides the cognitive processes into three classes: • Metacomponents – higher order processes used to plan and regulate task performance (include identifying problems, formulating hypotheses and strategies, etc.) o Fundamental sources of individual differences in fluid intelligence • Performance components – actual mental processes used to perform a task (include perceptual processes, memory retrieval, etc.) • Knowledge acquisition components – allow us to learn from experience, store information in memory, and combine new insight with previously acquired information o Underlie individual differences in crystallized intelligence  Environmental demands may call for three different manifestations of intelligence: • Analytical – involves kinds of academically oriented problem solving skills assessed by traditional intelligence tests • Practical – refers to skills needed to cope with everyday demands and to manage oneself and other people effectively (includes emotional intelligence) • Creative – mental skills needed to deal adaptively with novel problems o Galton resurrected  Modern attempts to relate neural measures to IQ  Electrophysiological studies of brain responses to visual and auditory stimuli have modest correlation  Studies of brain metabolism show lower levels of glucose consumption in people of high intelligence • Brain size and intelligence o Studies of Einstein’s brain found overall brain size smaller than average  However, parietal lobes were densely packed with both neurons and glial cells ‘In Review’ Section on page 390 Influences on Intelligence • Cultural and Group Differences o Ethnic group difference – various differences in IQ found across different races  May be attributed to various causes, including nature vs. nurture argument o Sex differences – men and women differ in abilities to perform different kinds of intellectual tasks  Men perform better on spatial tasks, target-directed skills, and mathematical reasoning  Women perform better on tests of perceptual speed, verbal fluency, mathematical calculation, and precise manual tasks requiring fine motor coordination • Beliefs, Expectation, and Cognitive Performance o Beliefs and expectations can affect how we respond to certain people Extremes of Intelligence • Cognitively disabled o Vast majority of retarded are mildly disabled, with IQ around 50-70 o 25% of disabled have biological cause • Intellectually gifted o IQ of 120 or above o Often show giftedness in one area ‘In Review” section located on page 398 Chapter 10 – Motivation and Emotion • Motivation – process that influences the direction, persistence, and vigour of goal directed behaviour Perspectives on Motivation • Instinct Theory and Modern Evolutionary Psychology o Instinct (fixed action pattern) – an inherited characteristic, common to all members of a species, that automatically produces a particular response when the organism is exposed to a particular stimulus o Theories faded due to circular reasoning (People are greedy. Why? Because greed is an instinct. Why? Because people are greedy.) o Modern evolutionary psychologists propose that many motives have evolutionary underpinnings • Homeostasis and Drive Theory o Homeostasis – a state of internal physiological equilibrium that the body strives to maintain  Requires a sensory mechanism for detecting changes in internal environment, a response system that can restore equilibrium, and a control centre that receives information from sensors o Drive theory (of motivation) – physiological disruptions to homeostasis produce drives, states of internal tension that motivate an organism to reduce this tension  Clark Hull proposes that reducing drives is the ultimate goal of motivated behaviour  Flaws in theory found in certain behaviours, such as when people skip meals to diet (increases rather than decreases state of arousal) • Incentive and Expectancy Theories o Incentives – environmental stimuli that pull an organism toward a goal o ^ compared to drives which are viewed as internal factors that ‘push’ organisms into action o Clark Hull argues that all reinforcement involves some kind of biological drive reduction (e.g. food is an incentive because it reduces the drive of hunger) but this view is no longer held. o Modern incentive theorists emphasize the pull of external stimuli and how stimuli with high incentive value can motivate behaviour, even in the absence of biological need (eating your favourite kind of cake even when you are full simply because it is there) o Expectancy x value theory – goal directed behaviour is jointly determined by two factors: the strength of the person’s expectation that particular behaviours will lead to a goal, and the value the individual places on the goal (incentive value)  Motivation = expectancy x incentive value o Extrinsic motivation – performing an activity to obtain an external reward or to avoid punishment o Intrinsic motivation – performing an activity for its own sake (enjoyment of the activity) o Overjustification hypothesis – giving people extreme rewards to perform activity that they intrinsically enjoy may overjustify that behaviour and reduce intrinsic motivation (In essence, if we begin to perceive that we are performing for the extrinsic rewards rather than for enjoyment, the rewards will turn ‘play’ into ‘work’, and it might be difficult to return to ‘play’ if those rewards were to cease.) o Extrinsic rewards reduce intrinsic motivation most strongly when they are tangible (money rather than praise) given merely for performing a task (regardless of how well) and when the performer expects rewards to be offered. o If extrinsic rewards such as praise are perceived as informative, as a means of positive feedback rather than as an attempt to control behaviour, they can increase feelings of competence and intrinsic motivation. • Psychodynamic and Humanistic Theories o View motivation within a broader context of personality development and functioning, but take radically different approaches o Freud believed that most behaviour resulted from a never-ending battle between unconscious impulses struggling for release and psychological defenses used to keep them under control PAGE 405 FOR MASLOWS NEED HIERARCHY o Abraham Maslow believed that psychology’s perspectives ignored a key motive: our striving for personal growth  Deficiency needs – concerned with physical and social survival  Growth needs – motivate us to develop our potential  Proposed concept of need hierarchy, a progression of needs containing deficiency needs at the bottom and growth needs at the top • Physiological  safety  belongingness and love  esteem  cognitive  aesthetic  self-actualization (need to fulfill our potential, ultimate human motive) • Can only focus on needs of highest level if bottom levels are satisfied ‘In Review’ section located on page 405 Hunger and Weight Regulation • The Physiology of Hunger o Metabolism – body’s rate of energy utilization  Two-thirds of energy used goes to support basal metabolism, the resting, continuous metabolic work of body cells o Immediate energy supply information interacts with other signals to regulate food intake (hunger not necessarily linked to immediate energy needs) o Homeostatic mechanisms are designed to prevent people from running low on energy in the first place (organisms will not wait until last second to eat) o Many researches believe in a set point, an internal physiological standard, around which body weight is regulated (if weight is altered, homeostatic mechanisms will return body close to original weight) o Body has long term signals that adjust appetite and metabolism:  Signals that start and terminate a meal • Hunger not triggered by empty stomach o People with nerves cut to stomach or stomach surgically removed still reported feelings of hunger • Sensors in hypothalamus and liver monitor blood glucose concentrations o If glucose levels drop, liver converts stored nutrients back into glucose, producing a drop-rise glucose pattern • Humans display a temporary drop-rise glucose pattern prior to experiencing hunger (Glucose is the body and the brains immediate usable fuel source.) • Walls of stomach and intestine stretch while eating, send nerve signals to brain to indicate fullness o Nutritionally rich food can produce full feeling quicker than equal volume of less nutritious food • Patients with removed stomachs can still experience satiety due to chemical signals o CCK (cholecystokinin) released into blood after eating, stimulates receptors that decrease eating  Signals that regulate general appetite and weight • Fat cells secrete leptin (hormone that decreases appetite) to regulate food intake and weight o Doesn’t directly cause fullness, but affects amount of satiety signals required • Obese people have ample leptin in blood due to fat mass, but brain appears insensitive to signals  Brain mechanisms • Many parts of brain play a role in regulating hunger and eating o Lateral hypothalamus triggers hunger – Damage ended hunger, patient refused to eat. o Ventromedial hypothalamus ends hunger – Damage caused excessive eating and caused massive weight gain.  Both found to not directly affect only hunger, but other factors that would also affect it • Paraventricular nucleus (PVN) – cluster of neurons packed with receptor sites for various transmitters that stimulate or reduce appetite o When losing weight, less leptin secreted, transmitters for hunger become more active (explains why dieting causes hunger) Research Frontiers on Activity Anorexia, CTA, and CPP located on page 409 • Psychological Aspects of Hunger o Eating is positively reinforced by the good taste of food and negatively reinforced by hunger reduction o Beliefs about caloric content of food, and memory of when and how much we last ate also affect consumption  Amnesia patients accepted multiple lunches half four after each other, while non-amnesia did not o Attitudes, habits, and psychological needs also regulate intake  Women overestimate how thin they must be to meet men’s standards, while men overestimated how bulky they must be  Objectification Theory – Western culture teaches women to view their bodies as objects, much as external observers would; this increases body shame and anxiety, which in turn leads to eating restriction and even eating disorders. • Environmental and Cultural Factors o Food availability is most obvious environmental regulator of eating o Food taste and variety powerfully regulate eating o Classical conditioning associates smell and sight of food with taste, triggering hunger • Obesity o Statistics:  BMI between 25 – 29.9 is overweight and > 30 is obese  33% of adult Canadians are overweight and 15% are obese  20% of Canadian children are overweight and 8% are obese o Genes and environment  Heredity influences basal metabolic rate and tendency to store energy as fat or lean tissue  Genetic facots account for 40-70% of variation in body mass  Experts believe obesity is due to abundance of inexpensive, tasty, high fat foods, a cultural emphasis on getting the best value (causing supersizing of menu items), and technological advances that decrease need for daily physical activity o Dieting and weight loss  Being fat alters body chemistry and energy expenditure, priming people to stay fat • Obese people have higher insulin levels, which convert glucose to fat ‘In Review’ section located on page 417 • Eating Disorders o Anorexia nervosa – eating disorder involving a severely restricted food intake  Often perfectionists who strive to live up to lofty self-standards o Bulimia nervosa – eating disorder involving binge eating followed by a purging of the food  Often depressed and anxious, exhibit low impulse control, and lack a stable sense of personal identity and self-sufficiency o Caused by environmental, psychological, and biological factors  More common in industrialized countries in which beauty is equated with thinness  Genetic factors may create a predisposition toward eating disorders  Many researchers believe that physiological changes are a response to abnormal eating patterns • Once started, the physiological changes perpetuate eating irregularities Sexual Motivation • The Physiology of Sex o Sexual response cycle – four stage cycle experienced during sexual arousal  Excitement phase – arousal builds rapidly  Plateau phase – respiration, heart rate, vasocongestion (blood pooling in nipples, breasts, and genital organs), and muscle tension continue to build until there is enough muscle tension to trigger orgasm  Orgasm phase – males: rhythmic contractions of internal organs and muscle tissue surrounding the urethra project semen, females: rhythmic contractions of the outer third vagina, surrounding muscles, and uterus  Resolution phase – physiological arousal decreases rapidly and the genital organs and tissue return to normal condition (more common in males)  Refractory period (male only) – period where orgasm is temporarily incapable of occurring. Woman may experience two or more successive orgasms before the onset of the resolution phase. o Hypothalamus controls the pituitary gland, which regulates secretion of hormones called gonadtrophins into bloodstream  Affect rate at which gonads secrete androgens (testosterone) and estrogens (estradiol). Both men and woman secrete androgens and estrogens.  Hormones have organizational effects that direct the development of male and female sex characteristics.  Hormones have activational effects that stimulate sexual desire and behaviour  Androgens, rather than estrogens, appear to have the primary influence on sexual desire. • The Psychology of Sex o Half of men and one fifth of women fantasize about sex at least once a day  More sexually active people tend to fantasize more  Fantasy illustrates how mental processes can affect physiological functioning. o Psychological factors can trigger and inhibit sexual arousal  Sexual dysfunction – chronic, impaired sexual functioning that distresses a person • Cultural and Environmental Influences o Two psychological viewpoints are relevant to predicting pornography’s effects  Social learning theory – people learn through observation • Rape myths modeled in porn movies can teach people that it is acceptable  Catharsis principle – as inborn aggressive and sexual impulses build up, actions that release this tension provide a catharsis that temporarily returns to a more balanced state • Viewing porn should provide a safe outlet for releasing tension • Freud and other psychoanalysts advocated for this model • Sexual Orientation o Refers to one’s emotional and erotic preference for partners of a particular sex o Modern researchers propose that sexual orientation has three dimensions: self-identity, sexual attraction, and actual sexual behaviour o Biological Theory: Homosexual and heterosexual males differ in their adult levels of sex hormones. o Psychodynamic View: Male homosexuality develops when boys grow up with a weak, ineffectual father and identify with a domineering or seductive mother. o Another Hypothesized that being sexually seduced by an adult homosexual caused children to divert their sex drive toward members of they own sex. o Behaviourists suggest that homosexuality was a conditioned response, developed by associating adolescent sexual urges with the presence of same-sex peers. o Researchers found one notable pattern among studies of homosexual and heterosexual  Even in childhood, homosexuals felt they were different from their same-sex peers, and were more likely to engage in non-gender-conforming activity o One biological explanation is the amount of androgens (a sex hormone) that the human fetus, whether boy or girl is exposed to. Lack of androgens and the boy is more like a girl, when a girl has a large amount of androgens, she is more like a boy. ‘In Review’ section located on page 426-427 Achievement Motivation • Need for achievement – represents the desire to accomplish tasks and attain standards of excellence • Motivation for Success: The Thrill of Victory o People can strive to succeed for two radically different reasons:  Motive for success – people are attracted to thrill of victory  Fear of failure – negatively oriented motivation to avoid failure o High motivation for success focus on mastery goals and performance-approach goals  Mastery goals reflect intrinsic motivation, individuals feel it is more important to study hard, think about the material deeply, and display better long-term retention than they peers.  Performance-Approach goals involve social comparison, such as to outperform classmates, which leads to higher academic achievement based on competition. • Fear of Failure: The Agony of Defeat o Measured in psychological tests that ask people to report anxiety in achievement situations o Tend to adopt Performance-Approach goals, but also have strong performance-avoidance goals in which fear of performing poorly is what sparks their high performance achievement o Worry associated with fear of failure and performance avoidance goals impairs task performance, therefore you should be motivated to achieve success, not just to beat someone else • Achievement Needs and Situational Force o People with strong need for achievement are ambitious and persist longer after encountering difficulties than others o In laboratory setting, high-need achievers do not outperform others with relaxed and easy tasks  Not true with challenging tasks o High-need achievers most likely to strive hard for success when they perceive themselves as personally responsible for outcome, perceive some risk of not succeeding, and there is an opportunity to receive performance feedback • Family and Cultural Influences o High need for achievement develops when parents encourage and reward achievement, but don’t punish failure o Fear of failure develops when achievement is taken for granted by parents, but failure is punished o Individualistic cultures tend to stress personal achievement. (United States, Europe) o In Collectivism achievement, motivation more strongly reflects a desire to fit into the family and social group, meet its expectations, and work for its goals. (Chinese work to impress their parents) ‘In Review’ section located on page 429 Motivation in the Workplace • Why Do People Work? o Earliest theory held that workers are motivated almost entirely by money  Research indicates that many more view personal accomplishment as most important job attribute o Research has found that job productivity and job satisfaction are weakly related • Enhancing Work Motivation o Job enrichment programs attempt to increase intrinsic motivation by making jobs more fulfilling and providing workers with opportunities for growth (reflects Maslows humanistic theory)  A job is most intrinsically motivating when it provides: • Skill variety – variety of tasks must be performed • Task identity – a whole product is completed • Task significance – have an impact on other people • Autonomy – freedom to determine work procedures • Job feedback – provides clear feedback on performance o Learning theory predicts that performance will increase when reinforcers are made contingent on productivity o Goal setting is a powerful motivational technique that has increased employee productivity in almost every study  Management by objectives – combines goal setting with employee participation and feedback • Employee participation – employees meet at least once a year with managers to develop employee goals and plan how to attain them • Objective feedback provides opportunities to recognize success ‘In Review’ section located on page 432 Motivational Conflict • Motivational goals can conflict with each other (choosing between studying or going to a party) • Approach-approach conflict – involves opposition between two attractive alternatives (selecting one means losing the other) o Conflict is greatest when both alternatives are equally attractive • Avoidance-avoidance conflict – involves a person facing two undesirable alternatives • Approach-avoidance conflict – involves being attracted to and repelled by the same goal (a fourth- year student is attracted to job opportunities in a new major, but is repelled by a fifth year of classes) o The tendency to approach a desired goal and the desire to avoid it both grow stronger as we get nearer to the goal, however the avoidance tendency usually increases in strength faster than does the approach tendency; thus, at first we may be attracted to a goal and only slightly repelled by its drawbacks, as we get closer to it, the negative aspects become more dominant and we stop and retreat, approach again, and once again retreat repeating this over and over in a state of conflict. • Delay Discounting – refers to the decrease (or discount) in the value of a future incentive. The further away in time, the greater the decrease in value. o E.g. An essay due in two weeks has less value than your favourite TV show that is on in 10 minutes. Compared to an essay that is due tomorrow and your favourite TV show. ‘In Review’ section located on page 433 The Nature and Functions of Emotion • Emotions – positive or negative feeling states consisting of a pattern of cognitive, physiological, and behavioural reactions o Concepts of motivation and emotion are closely linked • Some theorists suggest that motives operate as internal stimuli that energize and direct behaviour toward some goal or incentive, whereas emotions are basically reactions, or responses, to events that relate to important goals. • The Adaptive Value of Emotion o Emotions have important adaptive functions  Signal that something important is happening, and shift attention to event  Increase chance of survival by energizing, directing, and sustaining adaptive behaviours o Barbara Fredrickson suggests positive and negative emotions have different adaptive functions  Negative emotions narrow attention and action tendencies so that an organism can respond to a threatening situation with a focused set of responses  Positive emotions broaden thinking and behaviour so that we explore, consider new ideas, try out new ways to achieve goals, etc. o Emotions are form of social communication o Darwin claimed that the expression of emotion intensifies the experience, while Freud claimed that it reduced the experience  Studies show that highly aroused subjects show little expressiveness, supporting Freud’s theory ‘In Review’ section located on page 435 • The Nature of Emotion o Emotions all share four common features:  Emotions are responses to external or internal eliciting stimuli  Emotional responses result from our interpretation or cognitive appraisal of these stimuli, which gives the situation its perceived meaning and significance  Our bodies respond physiologically to our appraisal  Emotions include behaviour tendencies, being either expressive (exhibiting surprise, smiling, crying, etc.) or instrumental (ways of doing something about the stimulus that aroused the emotion, eg. Studying for an anxiety arousing test) o The Cognitive Component  Cognitions are involved in every aspect of emotion  Appraisal processes – idea that emotional reactions are triggered by cognitive appraisals accounts for fact that different people can have different emotional reactions to the same situation o The Physiological Component  Brain structure and neurotransmitters • Subcortical structures (hypothalamus, amygdale, hippocampus) play major roles in emotion • Cerebral cortex has many connections with hypothalamus and limbic system, allowing constant communication between cortical and subcortical regions o Ability to regulate emotion depends heavily on prefrontal cortex o Cognitive appraisal processes surely involve activities in the cortex, where the mechanisms for language and complex thought reside. • Joseph LeDoux revealed important links between cortex and limbic system o Thalamus sends messages through two pathways: to cortex, and to amygdale o Amygdale can receive input and generate emotional response before cortex can interpret what caused reaction o Enables organism to respond quickly o Explains why people have different reactions than emotion they experience o Cortex, where sensory input is organized as perceptions and evaluated by the “thinking” or linguistic part of the brain. • Amygdale has emotional processing abilities without conscious awareness • Brain-damaged patients suggest two neural bases for conscious awareness and emotional response o Damaged hippocampus (memory impairment) can develop a conditioned emotional response despite not learning connection between CS and UCS o Damaged amygdale can describe the CS and UCS relation, but cannot develop a conditioned fear response  Hemispheric activation and emotion • Damage to left hemisphere accentuated negative emotions, such as wailing and crying, while right hemisphere damage was linked to indifference, happiness, and euphoria  Autonomic and hormonal processes • Fight-or-flight response produced by sympathetic branch of autonomic nervous system and hormones from endocrine system o Hormones effect last much longer than nervous system o The Behavioural Component  Expressive behaviours – observable behavioural indications of subjectively experienced emotions • Empathy – the capacity for experiencing the same emotional response being exhibited by another person  Darwin argued that emotional displays are products of evolution, and they contribute to species survival - Wolves baring their teeth to scare off competitors • Two findings suggest humans have fundamental emotional patterns: o Expressions of certain emotions are similar across variety of cultures, suggesting that certain expressive behaviour patterns are wired into the nervous system. o Children who are blind from birth express basic emotions in same way as sighted children, ruling out the possibility that they are learned solely through observation. • Emotions can be organized in terms of hierarchy ranging from most universal to more subtle o Most basic are positive and negative affect (interest and disinterest) o Basic emotions described by evolutionary theorists appear at second level o Third level consists of subtle emotions (love)  Different parts of face provide best cues for recognizing various emotions • Eyes provide major cues for fear and sadness • Mouth provides cue for happiness and disgust • Forehead provides cue for surprise • Anger involves all areas  Woman have generally proven to be more accurate judges of emotional expressions than men, but this ability can be learned by men o Cultural display rules – norms for emotional expression in a given culture o Instrumental behaviours – emotional coping behaviours that are directed at achieving the goal or performing the task that is relevant to the emotion  Fall into five broad categories: • Moving toward others (love) • Moving away from others (fear, revulsion) • Moving against others (anger) • Helplessness • Submission  Relation between arousal and performance depends on arousal level and task complexity • Higher task complexity requires lower arousal for maximum performance ‘Focus on Neuroscience’ “The Neuroscience of Affective Style” located on page 446-447 ‘In Review” section located on page 447-448 Interactions Among the Components of Emotion o The James-Lange Somatic Theory o Somatic theory of emotions – emphasizes the causal role of bodily responses in experiencing of emotion  Physiological reactions determine emotion (e.g. crying causes us to feel sad)  Eliciting stimulus  autonomic response  perception of emotion o The Cannon-Bard Theory o People’s bodies do not respond instantaneously to emotional stimulus, yet people experience emotion immediately  Proposed that when we encounter emotional situation, thalamus sends messages to both cortex and body’s organs  Therefore, neither cognition nor arousal causes the other, they are independent responses to stimulation from the thalamus (Diagram on page 449)  Eliciting stimulus  thalamus  autonomic response AND conscious emotion o Animals with severed nerves from organs to brain still could experience emotion o Facial feedback hypothesis – feedback to brain from face might play a key role in determining the nature and intensity of emotion that we experience  Positive or negative emotional responses can be triggered by contractions of specific face muscles  Vascular theory of emotional feedback – tensing facial muscles alters temperature of blood entering brain by controlling volume of air inhaled by nose • Cooling blood causes positive effect • Warming blood causes negative effect o Cognitive-Affective Theories o Strong emphasis in link between cognitive appraisal and arousal  All emotional responses require some sort of appraisal o Emotional response depends on how environmental stimuli is interpreted o Lazarus’s theory – eliciting stimulus  appraisal of stimulus  bodily arousal o Schachter’s two-factor theory of emotion – arousal and cognitive labeling based on situational cues are the critical ingredients in emotional experience  Eliciting stimulus  appraisal  bodily arousal  (determines intensity of)  perception of emotion  Intensity of arousal tells us strength of emotion, but situational cues tell us what the emotion is  Subjects were injected with epinephrine (increases arousal), no emotion produced unless subjects are exposed to emotional stimulus ‘In Review’ section located on page 454-455 Chapter 11 – Development over the Life Span Major Issues and Methods • Developmental psychology examines changes in biological, physical, psychological, and behavioural processes over age • Four issues guide developmental research: o Nature and nurture – To what extent is our development the product of heredity (nature) or the product of the environment (nurture)? How do they interact? o Critical and sensitive periods – Are some experiences especially important at particular ages?  Critical period – an age range during which certain experiences must occur for normal development  Sensitive period – an optimal age range for certain experiences, but no critical range o Continuity versus discontinuity – Is development continuous and gradual, like the growth of a tree? Or is it discontinuous, progressing through qualitatively distinct stages, such as a caterpillar to a butterfly. o Stability versus change – Do our characteristics remain consistent as we age? • Five developmental functions: o No change – an ability from birth remains constant over life span o Continuous – an ability that develops gradually and then remains constant o Discontinuity – an ability that progresses in stages (crawling, standing, walking) o Inverted U-shaped function – an ability that peaks at a certain age, then decreases (Divorce anxiety) o U-shaped function – an ability that is present early in life, disappears temporarily, and re- emerges later. • Different designs used to research: o Cross-sectional design – research design that compares people of different age groups at same point in time. Perform the acuity test once.  Drawback in that different age groups (cohorts) grew up in different periods o Longitudinal design – repeatedly tests same cohort as it grows older. (Ex. Test 10 year olds continuously for 10 year intervals until they are 60) o Sequential design – combines the cross-sectional and longitudinal designs, repeatedly testing several age cohorts as they grow older to determine whether they follow a similar developmental pattern. Prenatal Development • Consists of three stages: o Germinal stage – first two weeks, zygote (fertilized egg) is formed o Embryonic stage – second to eighth week, zygote becomes embryo (placenta and umbilical cord form, organs form) o Fetal stage – after nine weeks, embryo becomes fetus (bodily systems develop, eyes open at 24 weeks, attains age of viability at 28 weeks) • Y chromosome contains TDF (testis-determining factor) gene which initiates development of testes at around 6-8 weeks • Various environmental influences can affect development o Teratogens – environmental agents that cause abnormal development Infancy and Childhood • The Amazing Newborn o Newborn sensation and perception  Vision is limited by poor acuity, lack of coordinated eye movements, and tunnel vision  Newborns orient to significant stimuli  Prefer patterned and more complex images o Newborn learning  After repeated exposure to certain sound, infants begin to stop turning to see source of sound, but would turn towards new sound  Rapidly acquire classically conditioned responses • Sensory-Perceptual Development o Visual field expands to almost adult size by six months, acuity continues to develop afterwards o Sound localization disappears in second month of life, returns after four or five months • Physical, Motor, and Brain Development o Maturation – genetically programmed biological process that governs growth o Physical and motor development follows principles  Cephalocaudal principle – reflects tendency for development to proceed in head- to-foot direction  Proximodistal principle – states that development begins along innermost parts of body and continues outward o Brain matures from inner parts (that govern basic survival functions) to cortex o Reflexes – automatic, inborn behaviours elicited by specific stimuli o Physical and motor development are also influenced by experience and environment  Regularly massaged infants gain weight more rapidly and show fast neurological development  Visual deprivation can damage visual abilities • Cognitive Development o Piaget believed that development results from maturation and experience, and that thinking changes qualitatively with age  Brain builds schemas (organized patterns of thought)  Two processes involved in acquiring new schemas • Assimilation – process by which new experiences are incorporated into existing schemas (child who sees a horse for first time may call it a “big dog”) • Accommodation – process by which new experiences cause existing schemas to change (child will realize the “big dog” isn’t a dog)  Four major stages of cognitive growth: • Sensorimotor stage (Birth to 2) – children understand their world primarily through sensory experience and physical interaction o Around eighteen months, achieve object permanence (ability to understand that an object continues to exist even out of sight) o Pseudoimitation (child can imitate actions just produced) present • Preoperational stage (2-7) – children represent the world symbolically through words and mental images, but do not understand basic mental operations o Cannot understand concept of conservation (principle that basic properties of objects, such as mass and volume, stay the same despite change in outward appearance) o Exhibit egocentrism (difficulty in viewing world from someone else’s perspective – children believe that others perceive world as they do) • Concrete operational stage (7-12) – children can perform basic mental operations concerning problems that involved concrete objects and situations • Formal operational stage (12+) – children are able to think logically and systematically about concrete and abstract problems o Universal tests show that the general cognitive abilities associated with the four stages appear to occur in the same order across cultures (Piaget is only a partial dumbass)  Culture has been found to influence cognitive development  Cognitive development within each stage seems to proceed inconsistently o Zone of proximal development – the difference between what a child can do independently and what the child can do with assistance from adults (social interaction affects development) o Cognitive development is best examined within information processing framework  Processing speed improves during childhood  Memory capabilities expand significantly  Younger children lack metacognition (awareness of one’s own cognitive processes) o Theory of mind – a person’s beliefs about the mind and the ability to understand other people’s mental states • Moral Development o Lawrence Kohlberg developed a stage model of cognitive development:  Preconventional stage – moral judgments are based on anticipated punishments or rewards  Conventional stage – moral judgments are based on conformity to social expectations, laws, and duties  Postconventional stage – moral judgments are based on well though out, general moral principles o Researchers have studied moral reasoning throughout all cultures  Moral reasoning changes from preconventional to conventional  Postconventional reasoning is relatively uncommon  Stages cannot be skipped o Postconventional reasoning occurs more often among Western culture, though this can be attributed to different moral values • Personality and Social Development o Erik Erikson believed that personality develops through confronting a series of eight major psychosocial stages (each of which involves a different conflict over how we view ourselves in relation to others)  Four crises that occur in infancy and childhood: • Basic trust versus basic mistrust • Autonomy versus shame and doubt • Initiative versus guilt • Industry versus inferiority o Attachment – the strong emotional bond that develops between children and caregivers  Imprinting – sudden, biologically primed form of attachment  Freud’s Cupboard Theory – attachment to caregiver is side-effect of ability to provide basic satisfaction (food)  Harry Harlow found that contact comfort is more important that the provision of nourishment  John Bowlby proposed that attachment develops in three phases: • Indiscriminate – newborn behaviours evoke caregiving from adults • Discriminate – infants direct attachment to ore familiar caregivers • Specific – infants develop meaningful attachment to specific people  Stranger anxiety – distress over contact with unfamiliar people  Separation anxiety – distress over being separated from a primary caregiver  Strange Situation Test – test for examining infant attachment • Anxious resistant infants are fearful with mother present, demand attention, and are distressed when she leaves • Anxious avoidant infants show few signs of attachment and seldom cry without mother • Most infants found to be securely attached (enjoy presence of mother) o Different types of attachment deprivation can affect infants in several ways  Isolated children and monkeys did not develop properly  Infancy is a sensitive period in which initial attachment to caregivers forms most easily and facilitates development o Daycare affects children’s development in various ways  Does not disrupt attachment to parents  Infants in daycare are slightly less engaged and sociable towards mothers  Infants from low income families with high quality daycare are better socially adjusted o Different styles of parenting can also affect children’s development  Authoritative – controlling, but warm, and establish and enforce clear rules within a caring, supportive atmosphere • Children: higher self esteem, higher achievers, fewer conduct problems, more considerate  Authoritarian – exert control over children, but do so with a cold, unresponsive, or rejecting relationship • Children: lower self-esteem, less popular, perform poorly in school  Indulgent – warm and caring, but do not provide guidance and discipline • Children: immature and self-centred  Neglectful – provide neither warmth, nor rules, nor guidance • Children: insecurely attached, low achievement motivation, disturbed relationships, impulsive, and aggressive o Parents play role in helping children develop gender identity  Gender identity – sense of “maleness” or “femaleness”  Gender constancy – understanding that being of a gender is permanent (develops around age six to seven)  Socialization – the process by which we acquire beliefs, values, and behaviours of a group • Plays key role in shaping gender identity and sex-role stereotypes Adolescence • Physical Development o Puberty – period of rapid maturation in which the person becomes capable of sexual reproduction o Early maturation tends to have more positive outcomes for boys than girls  Boys acquire strength and size  Girls more likely to develop eating disorders, smoke, drink, and have problems academically • Cognitive Development o Capacity for abstract reasoning increases substantially during adolescence o Adolescent egocentrism – highly self-focused thinking  Adolescents overestimate the uniqueness of their feelings and experiences  Always feel that they are “on stage” and being watched and judged • Social and Personality Development o Erik Erikson interviewed many adolescents to understand sense of identity  Many had identity diffusion (had not yet gone through identity crisis, and remain uncommitted to a coherent set of values)  Others found to be in foreclosure (adopted an identity without going through a crisis)  Moratorium – adolescents experiencing a crisis, but have not yet resolved  Identity achievement – adolescents who have gone though a crisis and successfully resolved it o Most adolescents report getting along “well” and “fairly well” with parents  Adolescents often agree with parents’ right to make rules, but not with some issues  Girls believed to be granted autonomy at a later age than boys Adulthood • Physical Development o Physical functioning peaks in young adulthood, and declines at mid-life • Cognitive Development o Several theorists propose a fifth stage of cognitive development  Post-formal thought – people can reason logically about opposing points of view and accept contradictions and irreconcilable differences o Information processing and memory change into adulthood  Perceptual speed (reaction time) declines steadily  Memory for new factual information, spatial memory, and memory recall decline o Fluid intelligence declines earlier than crystallized intelligence o Regular exercise and perceptual-motor activities may preserve cognitive abilities o Wisdom scores found to rise from age 13 to 25, and then remain stable • Social and Personality Development o Social clock – a set of cultural norms concerning optimal age range for work, marriage, parenthood, and other major life experiences o Erik Erikson proposed different stages and critical events  Intimacy versus isolation (20-40)  Generativity versus stagnation (40-60) – how generous a person becomes  Integrity versus despair (60+) – a sense of completeness and fulfillment o People who live together prior to marriage are at higher risk of divorce  Not causal, most likely due to lack of religiousness, less commitment to marriage o U-shaped relation found in marital satisfaction  Happiness greatest before children, drops during children, rises again after children leave home o Various stages affect the establishment of a career  Growth stage (childhood to mid-twenties) – form initial impressions about types of jobs we like and dislike  Exploration stage (immediately after) – form tentative ideas about a preferred career and pursue necessary training  Establishment stage (mid-twenties to mid-forties) – begin to understand whether they made correct choice  Maintenance stage (end of establishment) – become more satisfied with choice  Decline stage – investment in work decreases, followed by retirement o Little evidence that most people experience mid-life crisis o Elisabeth Kubler-Russ found five stages that terminally ill patients experience as they cope with death  Denial, anger, bargaining for life, depression, acceptance Chapter 16 – Behaviour in a Social Context Social Thinking and Perception • Attribution: Perceiving the Causes of Behaviour o Attributions – judgments about the causes of behaviour and outcomes o Fritz Heider maintained that attempts to understand behaviour involve different types of attribution  Personal attribution – people’s behaviour is caused by their characteristics  Situational attribution – aspects of the situation cause behaviour o Three types of information determine attribution we make  Consistency (is the decision made always consistent)  Distinctiveness (is the decision distinct to a situation, or often made)  Consensus (how do other people respond) • When these three are higher, the decision made is a situational attribution o Fundamental attribution error – tendency to underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate the role of personal factors when explaining other’s behaviour o Self-serving bias – making relatively more personal attributions for successes and more situational attributions for failure o Cultural influences affect attributions  Participants from India make more situational attributions, and Americans make more personal attributions • Forming and Maintaining Perceptions o Primacy effect – tendency to attach more importance to the initial information that we learn about a person
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