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Chapter 8

Psych 1000 Chapter 8 Notes

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Psychology 1000
Mark Holden

Memory • Memory o Set of processes that allow us to record and (later) retrieve experiences and information o Seems simple but is remarkably complex…  LAX air traffic controller  Prison warden James smith  Patient H.M.  Patient K.C.  Rajan Mahadevan  Tatiana Cooley o Critical to everyday functioning  Remember how to shut off alarm, route to school, what words mean, etc Basic Processes of Memory • 3 Basic processes of Memory: o Encoding:  Translating information into a neural code that our brain can understand • Input process • Alittle like how sensory neurons “translate” signals o In this case we translate any information • More like typing lecture material into a computer o Keystrokes are translated into electrical code that the computer can understand • Ex. Reading your class notes, studying for an exam o Storage:  Retaining information over some period of time • Storage process • Like hitting “save” on your computer o Retrieval:  Pulling information out of storage • Output process • Like opening the saved file on your computer • Ex. Taking the exam, remembering course material • But, we only remember some things for a short time, while others we seem to remember forever Three-Component Model • Developed by R.Atkinson & R. Shiffrin o Sometimes called theAtkinson-Shiffrin model • Takes into account the 3 basic processes and the fact that we seem to have different types of memory • Proposes that there are 3 components to memory: o Sensory Memory o Short-Term Memory (STM) o Long-term Memory (LTM) • These components are functionally different, but do not necessarily correspond to specific brain areas • Sensory Memory o Allows a complete sensation to linger in memory for a very brief time after it has actually ended  Ex. Perception of an afterimage of a sparkler o Stores information for a very brief period of time (<2 sec) o Different sense have different “sensory registers”  Visual information  “Iconic Store” • Complete visual picture (lasts about ½ second)  Auditory information  “Echoic Store” • Everything we just heard (lasts about 2 seconds) • Short-Term (“Working”) Memory o Most information in sensory memory quickly fades away o But, some information from sensory memory passes on to the STM  Selective attention o STM: what we are currently focused on/thinking about  Relate this to theories of consciousness (Freud? Cognitive?)  Includes info we are trying to learn/remember (studying)AND info we’ve remember and are currently thinking about o Can be visual, motoric, phonological, or semantic o Duration: about 20 seconds (without rehearsal)  Ever forget someone’s name, seconds after learning it?   Maintenance rehearsal: repeat something over and over • Keeps information in STM • No good for long term retention  Elaborative Rehearsal: focus on the meaning of something or relate it to other things you already know • Also keeps information in STM • WAY more effective for long term retention o Capacity: about 7+/- 2 items  called the “magic number”  “Magic number” applies to chunks of info o STM is often referred to as “working memory” because this is the level at which we process (work with) info  Can include working with info retrieved from LTM  Ex.Alphabet demo  remember the alphabet (memory)  Have to do something other than just recite it (working • Long Term Memory o Vast library of more durable, stored memories o Rehearsing items in STM leads to them eventually being put into LTM o Unlimited capacity, unlimited duration o LTM is definitely different from STM  Patient H.M. • Serial Position Effect o Primacy Effect = LTM o Recency Effect = STM Serial Position Effect • When learning a long list of items, those that were near the beginning and near the end are remembered better than those in the middle o Primacy Effect: better memory for the first few items  Always happens  due to rehearsal  LTM o Recency Effect: better memory for last few items  Only happens if people are tested immediately  If we prevent rehearsal during a delay, the effect disappears • Due to limited duration of STM Encoding • Getting information into the memory system o Involve translating information into a neural code that the brain processes and stores o The better we encode something, the better our chances of remembering it later • Levels of processing theory o Deeper processing  better remembering  Automatic processing • Unintentional; requires little attention o Ex. Remembering the slide of wallabies hugging • “shallow” level of processing  poor memory  Effortful processing • Intentional; requires conscious attention o Ex. Trying to remember what the serial position curve looks like • Deep level of processing  strong processing Optimizing Encoding • Levels of processing theory o Deeper processing  better remembering  Maintenance rehearsal • Repeat something over and over o Ex. My wife encoding the ph. # for pizza st o From textbook: student failed 1 exam. Had ‘read’ book 3x assuming that info would sink in  Elaborative rehearsal • Elaborate on the info, relating to something we already know o Ex. Remembering phonological STM by thinking about how the word is similar to head phones • Focus on meaning • Much better for long term retention • Maintenance: maintains info in STM • Elaborative: elaborates based on what you already know, helping transfer to LTM • Chunking o Combining individual pieces into a larger unit of meaning  STM causes a bottleneck of info (7 +/- 2)  Chunking essentially organizes the info  Remember these letters/numbers, in order:  B O S C H I D E T M T L N Y R T O R  9 0 5 4 3 0 5 1 4 7 • Hierarchical encoding o Kind of like chunks of chunks  Group things into categories  categories are “retrieval cues”  Demo o People tend to spontaneously _____________  Even without explicit category labels, _______ helps you also remember _______ & _____________ o What if it was already organized? • Lists of words were given to participants: o Group 1: pre-organized into categories o Group 2: presented randomly within a similar looking tree o o Memory for words was much better for group 1 • Visual Imagery o Remember, we said that we can encode things visually, phonologically, etc  Dual Coding Theory • Proposed by alan paivio • Says we can remember things verbally and/or visually o Encoding things both ways is better than just one (better odds of recall)  But it’s a lot easier to visualize concrete objects o Which lists of words would be easier to recall?  Fire truck, light bulk, garbage can  Jealously, knowledge, justice  Method of loci • Technique to enhance memory that uses visualization • Link every item on a list to a well known physical environment with distinct locations (ex your house) • Ex. Remember the major figures in history of psych by imagining odd, large items placed (in order) through your house o Front door, shelf for keys  bundt cake pan o Dining room  james dean cut out o Living room  Sigmund freud is talking to someone on my couch! o Kitchen Sherlock holmes, Watson, and principal skinner are having tea.. Other Factors in Encoding • Schema o Basically, a mental representation (like a model or a framework)  Remember schema in perception? o We rarely remember what we read or hear “word for word”  instead remember the “gist” o Schemata are rough frameworks that help organize our memory  Ex. Remember as much of the following paragraph as you can • From page 287-288 • Expert Schemata o Chase & Simon studied chess players’memory  Studied experts and novices to chess  5 seconds to encode a chess board with ~24 pieces on it  Goal was to remember the exact positions of the pieces o On half of the trials, pieces were in “meaningful” positions, and on half the trials they were random  Meaningful – they could happen in a game o Results:  Expert chess players’memory was WAY better than novices’for meaningful arrangements  BUT, memory was equally bad for random board o Conclusion:  Experts did not have “better memory” overall  Experts used schemas and chunking to organize the meaningful board into patterns to aid encoding • “Alh, black was using the Alekhine defense, White was countering with the Stonewall attack” o Same thing is found for expert football coaches versus novices when trying to remember X and O on a whiteboard Storage Distinctions in LTM • Declarative Memory: o Memory that you can “declare” (talk about) o Episodic Memory:  Our personal experiences; the episode of our lives • “I remember when my daughter said her first word” o Semantic Memory:  General facts and knowledge • “Wilhelm Wundt opened the first psych lab in 1879” • Procedural Memory: o Memory for skills or actions o Remember patient H.M.?  Normal procedural memory (mirror tracing task)  No episodic memory past his 20s • Explicit vs. Implicit o Explicit Memory:  Conscious or intentional memory about something • You are explicitly trying to remember  Recognition: • Decide whether something looks familiar • The answer is (usually) provided for you o Multiple choice tests, criminal line
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