Textbook Notes (368,326)
Canada (161,799)
Psychology (4,889)
Psychology 1000 (1,620)
Chapter 8

Psych 1000 Chapter 8 Notes

20 Pages
69 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 1000
Professor
Mark Holden
Semester
Fall

Description
Memory • Memory o Set of processes that allow us to record and (later) retrieve experiences and information o Seems simple but is remarkably complex…  LAX air traffic controller  Prison warden James smith  Patient H.M.  Patient K.C.  Rajan Mahadevan  Tatiana Cooley o Critical to everyday functioning  Remember how to shut off alarm, route to school, what words mean, etc Basic Processes of Memory • 3 Basic processes of Memory: o Encoding:  Translating information into a neural code that our brain can understand • Input process • Alittle like how sensory neurons “translate” signals o In this case we translate any information • More like typing lecture material into a computer o Keystrokes are translated into electrical code that the computer can understand • Ex. Reading your class notes, studying for an exam o Storage:  Retaining information over some period of time • Storage process • Like hitting “save” on your computer o Retrieval:  Pulling information out of storage • Output process • Like opening the saved file on your computer • Ex. Taking the exam, remembering course material • But, we only remember some things for a short time, while others we seem to remember forever Three-Component Model • Developed by R.Atkinson & R. Shiffrin o Sometimes called theAtkinson-Shiffrin model • Takes into account the 3 basic processes and the fact that we seem to have different types of memory • Proposes that there are 3 components to memory: o Sensory Memory o Short-Term Memory (STM) o Long-term Memory (LTM) • These components are functionally different, but do not necessarily correspond to specific brain areas • Sensory Memory o Allows a complete sensation to linger in memory for a very brief time after it has actually ended  Ex. Perception of an afterimage of a sparkler o Stores information for a very brief period of time (<2 sec) o Different sense have different “sensory registers”  Visual information  “Iconic Store” • Complete visual picture (lasts about ½ second)  Auditory information  “Echoic Store” • Everything we just heard (lasts about 2 seconds) • Short-Term (“Working”) Memory o Most information in sensory memory quickly fades away o But, some information from sensory memory passes on to the STM  Selective attention o STM: what we are currently focused on/thinking about  Relate this to theories of consciousness (Freud? Cognitive?)  Includes info we are trying to learn/remember (studying)AND info we’ve remember and are currently thinking about o Can be visual, motoric, phonological, or semantic o Duration: about 20 seconds (without rehearsal)  Ever forget someone’s name, seconds after learning it?   Maintenance rehearsal: repeat something over and over • Keeps information in STM • No good for long term retention  Elaborative Rehearsal: focus on the meaning of something or relate it to other things you already know • Also keeps information in STM • WAY more effective for long term retention o Capacity: about 7+/- 2 items  called the “magic number”  “Magic number” applies to chunks of info o STM is often referred to as “working memory” because this is the level at which we process (work with) info  Can include working with info retrieved from LTM  Ex.Alphabet demo  remember the alphabet (memory)  Have to do something other than just recite it (working • Long Term Memory o Vast library of more durable, stored memories o Rehearsing items in STM leads to them eventually being put into LTM o Unlimited capacity, unlimited duration o LTM is definitely different from STM  Patient H.M. • Serial Position Effect o Primacy Effect = LTM o Recency Effect = STM Serial Position Effect • When learning a long list of items, those that were near the beginning and near the end are remembered better than those in the middle o Primacy Effect: better memory for the first few items  Always happens  due to rehearsal  LTM o Recency Effect: better memory for last few items  Only happens if people are tested immediately  If we prevent rehearsal during a delay, the effect disappears • Due to limited duration of STM Encoding • Getting information into the memory system o Involve translating information into a neural code that the brain processes and stores o The better we encode something, the better our chances of remembering it later • Levels of processing theory o Deeper processing  better remembering  Automatic processing • Unintentional; requires little attention o Ex. Remembering the slide of wallabies hugging • “shallow” level of processing  poor memory  Effortful processing • Intentional; requires conscious attention o Ex. Trying to remember what the serial position curve looks like • Deep level of processing  strong processing Optimizing Encoding • Levels of processing theory o Deeper processing  better remembering  Maintenance rehearsal • Repeat something over and over o Ex. My wife encoding the ph. # for pizza st o From textbook: student failed 1 exam. Had ‘read’ book 3x assuming that info would sink in  Elaborative rehearsal • Elaborate on the info, relating to something we already know o Ex. Remembering phonological STM by thinking about how the word is similar to head phones • Focus on meaning • Much better for long term retention • Maintenance: maintains info in STM • Elaborative: elaborates based on what you already know, helping transfer to LTM • Chunking o Combining individual pieces into a larger unit of meaning  STM causes a bottleneck of info (7 +/- 2)  Chunking essentially organizes the info  Remember these letters/numbers, in order:  B O S C H I D E T M T L N Y R T O R  9 0 5 4 3 0 5 1 4 7 • Hierarchical encoding o Kind of like chunks of chunks  Group things into categories  categories are “retrieval cues”  Demo o People tend to spontaneously _____________  Even without explicit category labels, _______ helps you also remember _______ & _____________ o What if it was already organized? • Lists of words were given to participants: o Group 1: pre-organized into categories o Group 2: presented randomly within a similar looking tree o o Memory for words was much better for group 1 • Visual Imagery o Remember, we said that we can encode things visually, phonologically, etc  Dual Coding Theory • Proposed by alan paivio • Says we can remember things verbally and/or visually o Encoding things both ways is better than just one (better odds of recall)  But it’s a lot easier to visualize concrete objects o Which lists of words would be easier to recall?  Fire truck, light bulk, garbage can  Jealously, knowledge, justice  Method of loci • Technique to enhance memory that uses visualization • Link every item on a list to a well known physical environment with distinct locations (ex your house) • Ex. Remember the major figures in history of psych by imagining odd, large items placed (in order) through your house o Front door, shelf for keys  bundt cake pan o Dining room  james dean cut out o Living room  Sigmund freud is talking to someone on my couch! o Kitchen Sherlock holmes, Watson, and principal skinner are having tea.. Other Factors in Encoding • Schema o Basically, a mental representation (like a model or a framework)  Remember schema in perception? o We rarely remember what we read or hear “word for word”  instead remember the “gist” o Schemata are rough frameworks that help organize our memory  Ex. Remember as much of the following paragraph as you can • From page 287-288 • Expert Schemata o Chase & Simon studied chess players’memory  Studied experts and novices to chess  5 seconds to encode a chess board with ~24 pieces on it  Goal was to remember the exact positions of the pieces o On half of the trials, pieces were in “meaningful” positions, and on half the trials they were random  Meaningful – they could happen in a game o Results:  Expert chess players’memory was WAY better than novices’for meaningful arrangements  BUT, memory was equally bad for random board o Conclusion:  Experts did not have “better memory” overall  Experts used schemas and chunking to organize the meaningful board into patterns to aid encoding • “Alh, black was using the Alekhine defense, White was countering with the Stonewall attack” o Same thing is found for expert football coaches versus novices when trying to remember X and O on a whiteboard Storage Distinctions in LTM • Declarative Memory: o Memory that you can “declare” (talk about) o Episodic Memory:  Our personal experiences; the episode of our lives • “I remember when my daughter said her first word” o Semantic Memory:  General facts and knowledge • “Wilhelm Wundt opened the first psych lab in 1879” • Procedural Memory: o Memory for skills or actions o Remember patient H.M.?  Normal procedural memory (mirror tracing task)  No episodic memory past his 20s • Explicit vs. Implicit o Explicit Memory:  Conscious or intentional memory about something • You are explicitly trying to remember  Recognition: • Decide whether something looks familiar • The answer is (usually) provided for you o Multiple choice tests, criminal line
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 1000

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit