Textbook Notes (363,019)
Canada (158,147)
Psychology (4,731)
Psychology 1000 (1,558)
Chapter 8

Psychology Chapter 8 Notes.docx

15 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Psychology 1000
Mark Holden

Chapter 8: Memory • Memory o Set of processes that allow us to record and (later) retrieve experiences and information o Seems simple, but is remarkably complex o LAX air traffic controller, prison warden James Smith, patient H.M., Patient K.C., Rajan Mahadevan, Tatiana Cooley o Critical to everyday functioning  Remember how to shut off alarm, route to school, what words mean, even what you dislike/like or who you are Basic Processes of Memory: • Encoding: o Translating information into a neural code that our brain can ‘understand’  Input process  a little like how sensory neurons ‘translate’ signals • in this case we translate any information  More like typing lecture material into a computer • Keystrokes are translated into an electrical code that the computer can ‘understand’  i.e. reading your class notes, studying for an exam • Storage: o Retaining information over some period of time  Storage process  like hitting ‘save’ on your computer • Retrieval: o Pulling information out of storage  Output process  Like opening the saved file on your computer  i.e. taking the exam, remembering the course material • But, we only remember some things for a short time while other things we seem to remember forever Three Component Model • Three component model o Developed by R. Atkinson & R. Shiffrin  Sometimes called the Atkinson-Shiffrin model o Takes into account the 3 basic processes and the fact that we seem to have different ‘types’ of memory o Proposes that there are 3 components of memory:  Sensory memory, short term memory (STM), and Long-term memory (LTM) o These components are functionally different, but do not necessarily correspond to specific brain areas • Sensory Memory o Allows a complete sensation to ‘linger’ in memory for a very brief time after it has actually ended  i.e. perception of n after image of a sparkler o stores information for a very brief period of time (< 2 seconds) o Different senses have different ‘sensory registers’  processes information  Visual information  ‘iconic store’ • Complete visual picture (lasts about 0.5 seconds)  Auditory information  ‘echoic store’ • Everything we just heard (lasts about 2 seconds) • Short Term (Working) Memory o Most information in sensory memory quickly fades away o But some information from sensory memory passes on to short-term memory (STM)  ‘selective attention’ o STM: What we are currently focused on/thinking about  Related to theories of consciousness because it consciously processes codes and works on information  Includes information we are trying to learn/remember (studying) AND information we’ve remembered and are currently thinking about  These memory codes can be visual, motoric, phonological, semantic  Form of the memory code does not always correspond to form of original stimuli  Phonological codes play an important role in short term memory o Capacity:  Duration: about 20 seconds without rehearsal  About 7 plusminus 2 items  magic number • Ever forget someone’s name, seconds after learning it? • Chunking makes it easier to remember  combining individual items into larger units of meaning can help recall • Magic number applies to chunks of information as well o Maintenance rehearsal:  Repeat something over and over  Keeps information in STM  No good for long term retention o Elaborative Rehearsal:  Focus on the meaning of something or relate it to other things you already know  Also keeps information in STM  Way more effective for long term retention o STM is often referred to as ‘working memory’ because this is the level at which we process (work with) information  Can include working with info retrieved from LTM • i.e. alphabet demo  remember the alphabet • have to do something other than just recite it (working) • Long-Term Memory (LTM o Vast library of more durable, stored memories o Rehearsing items in STM leads to them eventually being put into LTM o Unlimited capacity, unlimited duration  until we die o LTM is definitely different from STM  Patient H.M. o Serial Position Effect  When learning a long list of items, those that were near the beginning and near the end are remembered better than those in the middle  Primacy effect is caused by LTM and reflects superior recall of early words • Always happens • STM transfers to LTM, then STM runs out of space • Possibly read the words faster to eliminate this effect  Regency Effect is caused by STM and reflects superior recall of most recent words • Last few words not bumped out of STM, so it still lingers in STM • Can wipe out regency effect by eliminating the last words from STM by asking to recite later, or prevent rehearsal in any way 3 Basic Processes of Memory • Encoding o Translating information into a neural code that our brain can ‘understand’  Input process • Storage: o Retaining information over some period of time  Storage process • Retrieval: o Pulling information out of storage  Output process Encoding • Encoding: o Getting information into the memory system  Involves translating information into a neural code that the brain processes and stores  The better we encode something, the better our chances of remembering it alter • Levels of Processing Theory o Deeper processing  better remembering o Three levels of encoding  Structural, phonological, semantic  Goes from shallowest to deepest o Automatic Processing  Unintentional; requires little attention • i.e. remembering the slide of wallabies hugging  ‘shallow’ level of processing  poor memory o Effortful Processing  Intentional; requires conscious attention • i.e. trying to remember what the serial position curve looks like  ‘deep’ level of processing  strong memory • Maintenance Rehearsal o Repeat something over and over again  i.e. my wife ‘encoding’ the ph# for pizza  student failed 1 exam, ‘read’ the book 3 times o maintains information in STM • Elaborative Rehearsal o Elaborate on the information, relating to something we already know  i.e. remember ‘phonological’ STM by thinking about how the word is similar to head-phones o Focus on meaning o Much better for long term retention  elaborates based on what you know and transfers to LTM Optimizing Encoding • Chunking: o Combining individual pieces into a larger unit of meaning  STM causes a bottleneck of information (7+/-2)  Chunking essentially organizes the information  i.e. 7+/- 2 chunks  21 letters • Hierarchical Encoding: o Kind of like chunks of chunks  Group things into categories  categories are ‘retrieval cues  People tend to spontaneously group similar words together in order to remember them o This logical hierarchy enhances our understanding of how these diverse elements are related o Each item serves as a cue for the next on the list o What happens if they were already organized?  List of words were given to participants  Group 1: pre-organized into categories  Group 2: presented randomly within a similar looking tree  Results: memory for words was much better for Group 1 • Visual Imagery o Remember, we said that we can encode things visually, phonologically, etc… o Dual Coding Theory:  Proposed by Alan Paivio  Says that we can remember things verbally and or visually  Encoding things both ways is better than just one way (better odds) • Abstract concepts easier to encode semantically, concrete objects easier to encode visually o Method of Loci  Technique to enhance memory that uses visualization  Link every item on a list to a well-known, physical environment with distinct locations • i.e. remember the major figures in the history of Psychology by imagining odd, large items in your house Other Factors in Encoding • Schema o Basically a mental representation  Remember schema in perception o We rarely remember what we read or hear ‘word for word’  instead, remember the ‘gist’ o Schemata are rough frameworks that help organize our memory o The way we perceive a stimulus shapes the way we mentally represent it in memory o Expert Schemata  Chase and Simon studied chess players’ memory • Studied experts and novice to chess • 5 seconds to encode a chess board with 25 pieces on it • Goal was to remember the exact positions of the piece  On half the trials, pieces were in ‘meaningful’ positions and on half the trials they were random  meaningful means they could happen in a gam  Results: • Expert chess players’ memory was way better than novices’ for meaningful arrangements • BUT, memory was equally bad for random board  Conclusion: • Experts did not have the ‘better memory’ overall • Experts used schemas and chunking to organize the meaningful board into patterns to aid encoding  Same thing is found for expert football coaches versus novices when trying to remember X and O on a whiteboard  Their we
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 1000

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.