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Chapter 1

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Psychology 1000

Chapter 1 Saturday, September 08, 2012 9:45 AM Chpt 1, pgs 2-19 • Empathy can actively inhibit neural circuits which lead to aggression PSYCHOLOGY scientific study of behavior and mind Behavior - directly observed Mind - internal states, processes (thoughts, feelings) Clinical psych → study an treatment of mental disorders Cognitive psychology → ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Psycholinguistics → psych of language Biopsychology → biological reasons for behaviors → how evolution shaped our mental capacities Developmentalpsychology → physical, psychological, social development over a timespan Experimentalpsychology ○ learning ○ sensory sys (auditory, visual) ○ Perception ○ Motivational states (sexual, hunger, thirst) Industrial-organizational (I/O) psychology → Behavior in a workplace ○ Leadership ○ Teamwork ○ Job satisfaction → Develop tests to help employers find best applicant Personality psychology → Human personality → Human personality ○ personality traits ○ how traits influence behaviour ○ Attitudes ○ impressions Social psychology → Examines thoughts, feelings, behaviours depending on the situation → Social relationships (love, attraction, prejudice, discrimination SCIENTIFIC APPROACH → Science is a process, includes systematically gathering and evaluating empirical evidence (to answer questions, test hypothesis in natural world) → Empirical evidence: gained through experience and observation, also from "messing around" with things, seeing what happens (experimentation) → Scientific observation is systematic → Everyday observation is not sys, can be misleading, even though it can be form of empirical evidence Why misconceptions are formed → Mental shortcuts : when forming judgments (ex - judging on clothing) → Fail to consider alt explanations for why a behaviour has occurred, may assume based on norm → Confirmation biaselectively paying attention to things that are consistent to our beliefs, ignoring inconsistent info Avoid misconceptions (use scientificapproach) to minimize bias → Psychologists use different instruments, to have accurate results, example ○ Video recorder ○ Questionnaire ○ Brain-imaging device → Observe people to distinguish similar behaviour in people → Look at statistics to avoid illusionary correlations → Observe in highly controlled environments, sometimes only one factor changed to see how people react differently to this one factor → Science is a self-correcting process, it evolves (scientific progress) → Scientific process is a "best estimate" CRITICAL THINKING → Actively understanding (instead of just receiving info) → Evaluating validity ○ What is the claim ○ Who is making it (credible source) ○ What is the evidence, is it good ○ What are other possible explanations ○ What is most appropriate conclusion PSYCH GOALS 1.Describe how people/animals behave 2. Explain and understand causes of behaviours 2. Explain and understand causes of behaviours 3. Predict for people/animals behave in certain conditions 4. Influence/control behaviour through knowledge • When you know when/how a particular behavior is caused (e.g. what triggers a b
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