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Psych Chpt 14 Review.pdf

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Psychology 1000
Richard Shugar

Chapter 14▯ Personality▯ - personality: the biologically and environmentally determined characteristic within a person that accounts for distinctive and relatively enduring patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting.▯ - only a personality if it observed consistently over time.▯ - typically have three characteristics.▯ - components of identity.▯ - perceived internal cause.▯ - perceived organization and structure.▯ ▯ Psychodynamic Perspective▯ Freud.▯ - freud’s psychoanalytic theory is the most influential.▯ - believes that an unconscious part of the mind can influence behaviours.▯ - freud considered personality to be an energy system.▯ - psychoanalysis because a theory of personality.▯ - psychic energy: powers the mind and constantly presses for wither direct or indirect release.▯ - mental events.▯ - can be conscious, preconscious, or unconscious.▯ - conscious: consists of mental events that we are presently aware of.▯ - preconscious: contains memories, thoughts, feelings, and images that we are aware of at the moment but can be called to the conscious mind.▯ - unconscious: a dynamic realm of wishes, feelings, and impulses that lies beyond our awareness.▯ ▯ Structure of Personality.▯ - has three separate but interacting structures: id, ego and superego.▯ - id: exists totally within the conscious mind, is the inner most core of persona;ity, and the only structure present at birth.▯ - operates according to the pleasure principle.▯ - def’n: seeks immediate gratification or release, regardless of rational considerations and environmental realities.▯ - ego: functions primarily at a conscious level.▯ - operates according to the reality principle.▯ - def’n: tests reality and under what conditions the id can safetly discharge its impulses and satisfy its needs.▯ - must achieve compromise between the demands of the id, the constraints of the superego, and the demands of reality.▯ - superego: the moral arms of personality.▯ - developed by the age of 4 or 5.▯ - the repository for the values and ideals of society.▯ - allows self control to take over from the external controls of rewards and punishment.▯ - strives to control the instincts of the id.▯ - particularly the sexual and aggressive impulses that are condemned by society.▯ - might cause a person to experience intense guilt.▯ ▯ Conflict, Anxiety, and Defense.▯ - when realistic strategies are ineffective in reducing anxiety, the ego may resort to defense mechanisms.▯ - repression: anxiety arousing impulses or memories are pushed into the unconscious mind.▯ - denial: when a person refuses to acknowledge anxiety arousing aspects of the environment.▯ - displacement: unacceptable or dangerous impulse is repressed, and then directed at a safer target.▯ - intellectualization: emotional connected with an upsetting event is repressed and the situation is dealt with as an interesting event.▯ - projection: an unacceptable impulse is repressed and the attributed to other people.▯ - rationalization: a person constructs a false but plausible explanation or excuse for an anxiety arousing behaviour or event that has already occurred.▯ - reaction formation: an anxiety arousing impulse is repressed, and its psychic energy finds release in exaggerated expression of the opposite behaviour.▯ - sublimation: a repressed impulse is released in the form of a socially accepted or even admired behaviour.▯ Psychosexual Development.▯ - freud proposed that children pass through a series of psychosexual stages during which the id’s pleasure-seeking tendencies are focused on specific pleasure-sensitive areas of the body called erogenous zones▯ - can arise during any stage and results in fixations.▯ ▯ Humanistic Perspective▯ - self actualization: to total realization of one’s human potential.▯ ▯ Carl Rogers’s Self Theory.▯ - most influential humanistic theory.▯ - believed that behaviour is not a reaction to unconscious conflicts but a response to our immediate conscious experience of self and environment.▯ - the self: an organized and consistent set of perceptions of and beliefs about oneself.▯ - plays a powerful role in guiding our perceptions and directing our behaviours.▯ - once developed, helps us to understand ourselves in relation to the world.▯ - need for self consistency: an absence of conflict among self perception.▯ - need for congruence: consistency between self perceptions and experience.▯ - any inconsistence with our self concept, including our perceptions of our own behaviour, evokes threat and anxiety.▯ - people with negative self concepts to accept success as it is for those with unrealistically positive self concept to accept failure.▯ - to preserve their self image, people not only interpret situations in self congruent ways, but they also behave in ways that will lead others to respond to them in a self confirming way.▯ - believes that we are born with need for personal regard: an innate need to be positively regarded by others and by oneself.▯ - needed for acceptance, sympathy and loves from others.▯ - essential for healthy development.▯ - unconditional positive regard: a communicated attitude of total and unconditional acceptance of other person that conveys the person’s intrinsic worth.▯ - need for positive self regard: to accept oneself.▯ - fosters a development of conditions of worth: dictate when we approve or disapprove of ourselves.▯ ▯ Self Esteem.▯ - refers to hoe positively or negatively we feel about ourselves, and it is a very important aspect of personal well being, happiness, and adjustment.▯ - related to many positive behaviours and life outcomes.▯ - people with high self-esteem are:▯ - less susceptible to social pressure.▯ - have fewer interpersonal problems.▯ - are happier with their lives.▯ - achieve at a higher and more persistent level.▯ - more capable of forming satisfying love relationships.▯ - people with poor self image are:▯ - more prone to psychological problems such as anxiety or depression.▯ - more prone to physical illness.▯ - more prone to poor social relationships and underachievement.▯ - unrealistic of unstable self esteem is more dangerous to individuals and society than low self esteem.▯ - the higher ones self esteem, the greater the vulnerability to ego threats.▯ ▯ Self Verification and Self Enhancement Motives.▯ - self verification: people are motivated to preserve their self concept by maintaining self consistency and congruence.▯ - self enhancement: people have the need to regard themselves positively, and research confirms a strong and pervasive tendency to gain and preserve a positive self image.▯ - several self enhancement strategies have been identified.▯ - tendencies or “positive illusions” contribute to their psychological well being.▯ - gender schemas: organized mental structures that contain our understanding of the attributes and behaviours that re appropriate and expected for males and females.▯ - typically tells us what a male or female “should” be like.▯ Trait and Behavioural Perspectives ▯ - two approaches have been taken to define “the building blocks of personality”.▯ - one approach is to propose traits on the basis of intuition or a theory of personality.▯ - second approach is to use the statistical tool of factor analysis to identify clusters of specific behaviours that are correlated with one another so highly that they can be viewed as reflecting a basic dimension, or a trait, on which people vary.▯ - studies have found that introversion-extroversion to be a major dimension of personality.▯ ▯ Cattell’s Sixteen Personality Factors.▯ - has a personality test called the “16 personality factor questionnaire”.▯ - used to measure individual differences on each of the dimensions and provide a comprehensive personality description. ▯ ▯ Eysenck’s Extraversion Stability Model.▯ - proposed that there are few basic traits.▯ - called the original basic dimensions of personality introversion - extroversion and stability - instability.▯ - extraversion reflects the tendency to be sociable.▯ - introversion represents the tendency toward social inhibition, passivity, and caution.▯ - stability-instability dimension represents a continuum
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