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Chapter 12

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Psychology 1000

Chapter 12 Notes • Developmental Psychology – Issues and Methods o Broad Issues:  Nature vs. Nurture • Extent to which development is result of heredity or environment • How do both components interact  Critical and Sensitive Periods • Critical period – age range in which experiences must occur for normal development • Sensitive period – optimal age ranfe for development o Normal development still possible outside of sensitive period  Continuity vs. Discontinuity • Is development continuous, or are there stages  Stability vs. Change • Do characteristics stay the same or do they change with age • 5 Types of Development o No change  Ability at birth is constant across lifespan • Like discriminating high/low pitch • Seeing objects distinct from ground o Continuous Change –  Ability not present at birth develops over months and years, but remains relatively constant over age o Stages  Ability progresses in stages 1 • Motor development )shift from rolling to crawling  standing to walking) • Cognitive development – shift from nonverbal thought to symbolic thinking o Inverted U Shaped function  Ability emerges after birth, peaks and then disappears • Separation anxiety • Visual acuity o U Shaped Function  Ability present in early life, disappears and then reemerges  Newborns turning toward off centered sound, and stepping with support • Developmental Psychologists o Describe functions and explain existence of functions/abilities o Research Designs  Cross Sectional Design • Compare people of different ages at the same point in time o Administer same test to 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 yr olds • Advantages o Collect data quickly • Disadvantage o Different Age groups (cohorts) – grow up in different historical periods  Their poorer abilities can be due to aging or environmental differences  Longitudinal Design • Repeatedly tests same cohort as it ages • Test 10-yr olds and then retest them every 10 years 2 • Disadfvantage o Takes a long time o Subjects can move, drop out of study or die  Sequential Design • Combines both approaches • Covers several age cohorts as they grow older o Determine if there is similar developmental pattern • Most expensive and time consuming • Prenatal Period o 266 days during which we go from a single-celled organism into a complex newborn human o Germinal Stage –  First two weeks of development  Begins when sperm fertilizes ovum • Called a zygote • Divides repeatedly and attaches to mothers uterus within 10-14 days o Embryonic Stage  Second – earth week after conception • Development of life support o Placenta  Contains membrans which allow nutrients to pass from mothers blood to umbilical cord o Umbilical cord  Has blood vessels which carry nutrients and oxygen to embryo • Embryonic cells divide and specialize 3 • Organs begin to form • By week eight, heart of the embryo is beating • Brain forms • Facial features – i.e. eyes are recognized o Fetal Stage th  After 9 week • Muscles become stronger • Bodily systems continue to develop • 24 weeks – eyes open • 28 weeks – age of viability o Can survive outside the womb • Genetics and Sex Determination o Females contain XX, males have XY  In sperm half the time its an X chromosome half of the time its Y o Y contains TDF – Testis Determining Factor gene o XX – girl, XY – boy o TDF initiates development of testes  Testes secrete androgens  male organ development o If TDF not present  testes don’t form  female organ development occurs  This time is called Prenatal Critical Period • Critical in determining the sex of the fetus • Environmental Influences o Teratogens  Agents which cause abnormal prenatal development 4  Placenta is supposed to prevent dangerous substances from reaching embryo/fetus  But sometimes it can pass through • i.e. Rubella – can cause deafness, heart defects, metnal retardations  STDs • Can be transferred from mother to fetus o 25% of mothers with untreated syphyllis have stillborn children • HIV also leads to 25 % of children born to HIV positive to contract HIV  Other teratogens – mercury, lead, radiation, other toxins.  Fetal Alcohol System (FAS) • Abnormalities which result from prenatal exposure to alcohol • Facial abnormalities • Small malformed brains • Intellectual and fine and gross motor impairment • Poor adaptive functioning • 1/3 – ½ of kids born to alcoholic mothers have FAS • Women ought to completely avoid alcohol.  Nicotine • Increases risk of miscarriage, premature birth, low birth weight • Second hand smoke could also affect birth weight and risk of repiratory infections  Heroin/Cocaine • Kids born to addict mothers are born addicted and experience withdrawal after birth 5 o Fetal movements can be elicitied by sounds and bivrations  Looked at increases in fetal heart rate  Occurs in 3 trimester  But even in control there was an increase after 29 weeks of age o Learning  After some time they stop responding to repeated sounds • Shows short term memory • Like sounds familiar to them during last months of development o Prefer mothers sounds than others  Some even were quiet if their mothers watched certain TV shows, showing that they associated the theme songs • If mothers were addicted, they were quiet and didn’t cry, those who were not addicted, their kids were unaffected  Reading the Cat in The Hat • Those whose mother read them during end of development had higher sucking rate than those who weren’t read Cat in the Hat and were hearing it for the first time  Learn about odours from mothers • If mother consumed anise  liked anise • Those whose mother didn’t consume anise  neutral or were averse to anise odours. • Infancy and Childhood o Amazing Newborn  World is not so confusing • Tactile, auditory, and chemical perceptual systems are stimulated during prenatal development, so they are operating at birth  Newborn Sensation and Perception • Preferential Looking Procedure 6 o Psych. Shows infants stimuli o Record how long their look at each stimulus o Different patterns and some are of a face o At any age infants prefer to look at complex patters (faces) than simple patterns • Infants visual acuity o Poor acuity o Infants have acuity of about 20/800 (40x worse than 20/20) • Auditory o Turn toward off centred stimuli • Tactile o Turn toward touching of cheek • Odours o Orient themselves towards odours o Newborn Learning  Can within minutes distinguish face of mother from that of another female stranger  Like novel stimuli  Visual Habituation Procedure • Same stimulus presented repeatedly and infant looking time declines • This is because infants look more at novel stimuli  New born colour vision • Newborns habituated white light  more interest when they view light of similar intensitites o Still had interest when exposed to other wavelengths.  Auditory Habituation Procedure 7 • Infants tend to turn their heads to off-centre novel auditory stimuli • After 16 times, they stop turning o They try to avoid the sound o They turn to other sounds o Some long term memory present – the habituation lasts about 24 hours  Infants tend to associate particular sounds with objects, like mother’s face with her voice  Can learn through operant and classical conditioning  Can learn to suck on a plastic nipple with a certain pattern to activate a recorder which plays their mother’s voice  Imitate adult facial expressions • Can recognize people and engage them in social exchange  Innate abilities • Born with mechanisms to respond to their caretakers and important events • Sensory Perceptual Development o Sensory perceptual abilities improve rapidly o Vision  Eye grows to adult size by 6 months, so acuity goes from 20/800 to 20/100  By 3-4 moths they begin to apply Gestalt principles to perceptions  Critical period – first 10 years o Audition  Sound localization • Uses U-shapedfunction o Newborns turn towards sounds at birth 8 o Then by month 2 it disappears and returns at 4-5 months o Reasons  They don’t practice, or are more interested in visual input  There could be temp. inhibition of cortical structures, during their maturation • Children can detect differences in phonemes – tiny differences in adult speech o Detect it by 1-2 months • Can detect changes in phonemes thay their mothers cannot detect. o Lose this ability by 12 months – when they start speaking in native language • Can perceive music like adult o Look longer to hear pitch that is pleasant, than one which is unpleasant o Could be because this is innate in primates as well • Physical, Brain and Motor Development o Maturation  Maturation • Genetically programmed biological growth processes o Leads to motor skills development during infancy and childhood  Cephalocaudal principle • Development proceeds from head to foot o Head of feturs/infant is much larger than the rest of its body o More growth is concentrated on head.  Proximodistal 9 • Development begins in the inner parts and moves outwards towards the outermost ports • Arms develop before hands and fingers • Babies can control shoulders at birth but not their arm or hand muscles o Young brain  Newborn – 25% of eventual adult brain weight  6 months – 50% of eventual weight  First part of development – inner parts – which control basic survival – heartbeat and breathing  Last part to develop – frontal cortex – responsible for high-level cognitive functions  New synapses form, • Unnecessary ones are pruned.  Cerebral hemispheres become more specialized o Motor Development  Reflexes • Automatic inborn behaviours elicited by certain stimuli at birth • Some have survival value: breathing, rooting reflex, sucking • Some are less obvious o Will crawl and will swim in water o Graspobjects with hands and feet o Try to walk by lifting each leg and alternating • A lot of these reflexes follow U shaped development o They start out with the reflex, and then it disappears and reappears 10 o E.g. walking reflex – could be they had it, but then the legs got heavier, so they needed to develop stronger muscles to lift the legs o Environmental and Cultrual Influences  Diet • Malnutrition stunts growth  Interactions • Babies who interact with others develop heavier brains, larger neurons ad more synapses. o Have more neurotransmitters too • If you deprive rats from physical contact with mother, their growth is stunted. • Massaging premature babies accelerates weight gain and neurologoical development  Experience • Teaching with 3 mins of practice daily a 6 weeks, leads to dramatic increase in when the child will be able to perform the act. • Some cultures encourage very early walking, and their young walk earlier, some restrict early walking, so their kids begin walking later.  Biology sets limits on environmental influences • No matter nutritition o There will be a maximum height a person can reach o No infant can be toilet trained before there is enough nerve fibres to regulate bladder control  Environmental influences are powerful • Nutrition fosters development • Impoverished environments deprive and stunt growth  Biological and Environmental Factors interact 11 • Perceptual Effects of Early Visual Deprivation o Children born with congenital cataracts  Prevents pattern vision  Get fixed within first year of life  Generally reach normal levels of acuity by 12 months • Acuity increases by factor of 4 within an hour after correction o Sleeper effects  There is some impact from early visual deprivation  Loss of acuity for very fine gratings  Deficient in detecting changes in spacing of features of pictures of rfaces  If cataracts are left unattended after 10 years of life, there will be permanent deficits. • Cognitive Development o Piaget’s Stage Model  Found that children of same age make similar mistakes on tests • Because of hwo children arrive at their answers  Believed that children’s thinking changed qualitatively by age • Differs from how adults think  Believed that brain needs to build schemas which organize patters of thought and action  2 processes to cognitive development: • Assimilation o New experiences are incorporated into pre-existing schemas o Child tries to reconcile new info into already existing schema 12 o When a child sees horse for first time, he says “big doggie” – tries to fit the new experience into already existing schema of a dog • Accomodation o New experiences change existing schemas o Horse doesn’t bark, or sit or fetch  Child realizes this  Results in disequilibrium beween existing schemas  Develop new schema for horsey, kitty o Formation of new schemas helps maintain an equilibrium – balance  Stages of Growth Stage Age (years) Major Characteristics • Infant understands world through sensory and motor experiences Sensorimotor Birth to 2 • Achieves object permanence • Emergence of symbolic thought Symbolic thinking; child uses words and images to represent Preoperational 2–7 • objects and experiences; pretend play • Thinking displays egocentrism, irreversibility, and centration Concrete 7–12 • Child can think logically about concrete events operational • Grasps concepts of conservation and serial ordering Formal operational 12 on • Adolescent can think more logically, abstractly, and flexibly • Can form hypotheses and test them systematically  Sensorimotor Stage • Birth to Age 2 • Relexes guide thought and action • Understand world through sensory and motor interactions • If babies cant see something, it doesn’t exist • At eight months – Object permanence o Understanding that object continues to exist even when It can no longer be seen. 13 • Language acquisition – at age 1 o Words represent objects, needs and actions • Babies can then begin to plan, form some concepts, and solve mental problems, and communicate thoughts.  Preoperational Stage • Represent world symbolically o Through words and mental images • Don’t understand basic mental rules • Can think about past and future, think about simple concepts • Symbolic thinking allows them to engage in pretend play • Don’t understand Conservation o Basic properties of objects like mass volume or quantity stay same even through appearance changes • Irreversibility o Difficult to revese an action mentally • Centration o Focus on one aspect or characterstic of a situation  Like when looking at two different glasses, they will tend to look at one aspect like height. • Egocentrism o Cannot view the world from someone else’s perspective  Cant step into another person’s shoes  Three-mountain problem • Cant see what someone else would see.  Concrete Operational Stage • 7-12 years 14 o Basic mental operations which are based on concrete objects and situation can be performed o Can show reversible thinking o Less centration o Solve conservation problems o Can describe a series of actions  Getting to school o Have difficulty with hypothetical questions, ones which require abstract thinking  Formal Operational Stage • Think logically about concrete and abstract • Can form and test hypotheses o Assessment of Piaget’s Theory  Universality • Piaget’s 4 stages occur in the same order across cultures • But some criticize this because culture influences cognitive development o Cognitive development can have more to do with relational/social intelligence thatn Piaget’s western perspective which is more connected to scientific/logical intelligence  Early Understanding of Physical world • Infants have a basic understanding of many concepts (i.e. gravity) • Test this with Violation of Expectation experiement o Cause a pencil to stop middair, and the infant will pay more attention to it, because it violates their expectancy o Hence they could understand abstract concepts like gravity • Have basic arithmetic skills 15 o Can do basic addition, and they stare longer at events/results which make no sense to them. o Can tell when something doesn’t make sense o Can understand that 1+1 =2  Complexity of stages • Young children make fewer mistakes in conservation tasks, and are less egocentric on taks which are familiar to them. • Another issue with Piaget’s model o On some tasks child may be preoperational, and on another be at the concrete operational o Opens up the continuity-disconuity debate o Vygotskt- Social Context of Cognitive Development  2 kids with same scores on cognitive tests  One kid after learning from an adult can perform the tasks correctly, the other kid cannot • Thus they are at different stages of cognitive development in reality  Zone of Proximal Development • Difference between what a child can do independently and what it can do with assistance from adults or more advanced peers • Other people can move a childs maturation within the prescribed biological limits • Having older siblings around can stimulate cognitive development, so long as the child is mature enough o Older siblings can teach their young ones new skills o Information Processing Approaches  Some view cognitive development as continuous • Gradual • Info processing abilities become more efficient over time. 16  Could be that young children cant solve conservation problems because they don’t know how to search for key info, or don’t have as sophisticated of a memory to hold it in memory simultaneously  Information Search Strategies • Strategies used to scan 2 pictures/pieces of info and compare them simultaneously.  Processing Speed, Attention, and Response Inhibition • Processing speed improves continuously from 8 to 12 • Abilitity to stay ettentive to one thing and inhbit impulses to be distracted improve with time. • Preschoolers may not be cognitively flexible o Can organize things with one criterion, but are unable to switch the criterion  i.e. arranging something by colour or by shape, cannot do one then switch to the other. • Not flexible o Due to immature selective attention  Would be able to complete the task, if forced to attend to it, by being asked to label the correct colour.  Working Memory and Long –Term Memory • Working memory increases with age • Older kids maintain and manipulate visuspatial info in working memory better than young children. • Older children also are more likely to use strategies to improve memory like rehearsal o More advanced brain maturation and schooling  more info to draw from  Continuity vs. Discontinuity • Some say both 17 • Continuous growth in memory, computational facility, and task specific knowledge due to major shifts and minor shifts.  Thoery of Mind- Children’s Understanding of Mental States • Theory of mind – person’s beliefs about mind and about mind and ability to understand other people’s mental states • Children under age 6 or 7 incapable of recognizing what other people are thinking • Children are unable to understand that some people have different thoughts than what they are thinking about o i.e. : Susie puts a candy bar inside a green box on the table, and then she goes away. Then her mother takes the candy bar out of the box and puts it inside a red bag on the bed. Susie doesn't see her mother do this. Later, Susie comes back and wants to get her candy because she is hungry. Where will Susie look for her candy bar?  2 and 3 yr olds: incapable of separating their knowledge from Susie • Thus, Susie will look into the red bag.  4 years – green box, because they realize that Susie has a different mind. • Lying and Deception o Those who have false belief understanding more likely to lie.  False belief understanding • i.e. they can tell whether or not another person will be able to know whether they are lying or not. • Thus they have an understanding of another person’s perspective. o Parents cant even detect if the children are lying, even police and customs officers cant tell the difference between a kid who is telling the truth and one who is lying. 18 o Can only tell on whether they are lying when they start to elaborate on the lies • Perspective taking and early word-learning o Infants make inferences about adults perspectives o Do so by Joint Visual Attention  Breaking eye contact with mother and look at what mother is gazing at. o This sets stage for looking at and labelling  If parent says about an object this is a ____  Then the child will then attach the word to the object even if its hidden from view. o By 4 years, the kids are more sophisticated, they will only take on the word if the parent appears knowledgeable and not uncertain. o So children begin to understand others perspectives before Piaget proposes they should. • Summary of Criticism of Piaget o According to Piaget, cognitive development depends on processes of assimilation and accommodation, and occurs in four stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. o Although the general cognitive abilities associated with Piaget's four stages occur in the same order across cultures, children acquire many cognitive skills at an earlier age than Piaget believed. Vygotsky emphasized that cognitive development occurs in a sociocultural context. Each child has a zone of proximal development, reflecting the difference between what a child can do independently and what the child can do with assistance from others. o Information-processing capacities improve with age. Older children search for information more systematically, process it more quickly, and display better memory. o Children begin to develop a theory of mind (beliefs about another person's knowledge, feelings, intentions, etc.) around 3 to 4 years of age. • Social Emotional and Personality Development 19 o Early Emotions and Emotion Regulation  Cant describe feelings  Crying – expression of distress  Interest – focusing their gaze and staring  Those are very basic  By 6 months they develop disgust anger, fear and sadness  18 months – selv awareness • Recognize self in mirror  Age 2 – learn about rules they are supposed to follow • Show guilt, pride, shame  Emotion Regulation • Processes by which we evaluate and modify emotional reactions • Have all sorts of actions to reduce distress • When they learn to speak, they can talk to themselves or others to reduce distress  Emotional Competence – the sum of empotional expressiveness and ability to regulate emotions • Influences social behaviour • People who cant control anger will be less popular o Temperament  Biologically based style of reacting emotionally and behaviourally to the environment  i.e. calm and happy, irritable and fussy, outgoing and active, shy and inactive  everyone differs in temperament  Assessed children based on parents descriptions 20 • Those who were difficult infants were found to have the most problems (emotional and behavioural) in childhood  Temperament is generally unstable, but sme maintain consistent temperament during first 2 yrs • Others change  Behavioural Inhibition – i.e. Shyness • Inhibited – quiet and timid, withdraw from unfamiliar environments • Uninhibited – more sociable • Those who were moderately inhibited or uninhibited, could not predict their temperament by age 7.5 • But those who were very uninhibited – they were very talkative and their temperament was stable over childhood o Very social • Those who were very inhibited – became very shy as kids • Inhibited – more likely to delay marriage and fatherhood, women – more likely to become homemakers when married. • Found that aggressive kids have a very different Dopamine Receptor gene (DRD4) – found also in kids with ADD o Genetic marker related to temperament • Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory o Life develops through 8 psychosocial stages  Involve different crises  Identity crises – how we view ourselves relative to the world. o Infancy and Childhood\  Basic Trust vs. Basic Mistrucst • How our basic needs are met and how much love and attention we get. • Year 1 21  Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt • 1-3 • Want to exercise individuality, but parents restrict. • Development of shame and doubt in response to parents harsh demands • Then lack courage for independence  Initiative vs. Guilt • 3-5 • Want freedom to explore o If given  initiative • If punished  guilt developed about their desires o Suppress curiosity  Other Stages: Age (years) Major Psychosocial Crisis First year Basic trust vs. basic mistrust 1–2 Autonomy vs. shame and doubt 3–5 Initiative vs. guilt 6–12 Industry vs. inferiority 12–20 Identity vs. role confusion 20–40 Intimacy vs. isolation 40–65 Generativity vs. stagnation 65+ Integrity vs. despair  According to this, personality is not fixed, constantly changes 22  Solving each crisis leads to preparation to meet next • Attachment o Imprinting  Biologically primed form of attachment • Some birds have a critical period. • Offspring must be exposed to parent within a day in order to be attached to them o Attachment  Strong emotional bond  Between children and primary caregivers  Not automatic imprinting  There is a sensitive period bond gets formed.  Enhances adjustment later in life  Can difficultly form attachment to caregivers later in childhood. o Attachment Process  Use of Rhesus monkeys  Used to think bond formed because of mother’s role in satisfying need for nourishment  Set up • 2 surrogate mothers, one is a bare wire cylinder with a bottle attached and another has a soft cloth without a feeding bottle  Infants run to the cloth mother  When feeding from the wire mother, they still stay attached to the cloth mother  Thus Contact comfort – (need for body contact with comforting object) more important than nourishment  3 Phases 23 • Indiscriminate Attachemnt o Newborn vocalizations and smiles towards everyone  Caregivers respond by satisfying basic needs • Discriminate Attachmet o 3 Months o Direct attachment towards familiar caregiver than strangers • Specific Attachment Behaviour o 7 or 8 months o Caregivers are secure base o First meaningful attachments o Anxiety  Stranger Anxiety • Distress over contact with unfamiliar people o 6 -7 months and ends by 18 months. • Reaches for caregiver when others are approaching, touching or handed to a stranger  Separtion Anxiety • Separation from primary caregiver • Inverted U-shaped function • Cross-cultural • Peaks at 12-16 months • Disappears at 3 yrs  Coincides with increase in cognitive and physical development  Could be evolutionary 24 • When kids start to walk they are prewired to be afraid of separation and strangers so that they don’t wander off from caregivers and get lost  Goal corrected partnership • Begins at 3 or 4 • Children and caregivers describe feelings to each other • Maintain relationship when they are apart. o Types of Attachment  Ainsworth • Strange Situation test o Infant plays with toys with mom, then mother leaves and stranger comes in to interact with the child. Then stranger leaves and after a while the mom comes back • Securely Attached o Infants explore room with mother o React positively with strangers o Distressed when mother leaves and happy when she returns • Insecurely Attached o Anxious – resistant  Fearful when mother is present  Demand her attention  Very distressed when she leaves  Not soothed when she returns  Resist contact with mother after she comes back o Anxious – avoidant  Show little attachment 25  Don’t cry when she leaves  Don’t seek contact when she returns • Securely attached are those with mothers that are more consistent in responding to babies needs, and the kids end up better adjusted socially. o Attachment Deprivation  What happens when children are deprived of stable ttachment  Deprived monkeys become exceptionally abusive to their young when they give birth  Thus being raised without attachment leads to long term social impairment o Isolating Monkeys and Children  Lack of human contact can lead to stunting of development • Twins who were forced to live in extreme seaparation were discovered to be emotionally and socially rtarded o Cognitive skills of 3yr old and speech of a 2 year old when they were 7 o Kids went on to become happy sociable and well attached to foster family. o Twins had each other for company • But also isolated single kids revoever • Have time for neural plasticity to occur • Monkey experiments have shown that having younger companions to interact with helps with this recovery a lot. o Children Raised in Orphanages  Romanian orphans in deplorable conditions  Looked at them and how they were adopted in Canada and how they developed 26 • Late adoptees – less secure attachment, and had lower IQ scores, and more parental stress o More indiscriminate friendliness showing lack of specific attachment  Where nurses take care, but there is high changeover • No stable bonds are formed • Thus these kids have problems forming peer relationships because they appear to need too much attention  Infancy is sensitive period where caregiver needs to form an attachment to child  Deprivation  developmental problems • If placed in a nurturing env. At a young enough age they form attachments o Daycare Controversy  Many parents worry how childcare will affect childs development • High-quality child care doesn’t disrupt attachment to parents • If parents are not sensitive to child at home and the child care is poor, and children spend too many hours there, then insecure attachment is more prevalent  Social Behaviour • A lot of time in child care  more behavioural problems but this disappears by grade 3  Cognitive Performance • Children in high quality child care have better cognitive performance  After school programs • Quality of relationship with family is what counts so after school programs don’t have an overall effect. o Styles of Parenting 27  Warmth vs. Hostility • Warm parents communicate love and caring • Hostile – express rejection, behave as though they don’t care about child  Restrictiveness vs. Permissiveness • Differ in extent in which they make and enforce rules  Authoritative Parents • Controlling • Warm • Clear rules • Have high expectations • Children tend to have higher self-esteem and are high acheivers, with few conduct problems.  Authoritarian • Controlling of children with cold or rejecting relationsip • Children have low self esteem • Less popular • Perform poorly in school  Indulgent • Have warm relationships with children • Don’t guide children/ discipline them to learn responsibility and concern for others • More immature and self-centered  Neglectful Parents • No warmth, rules or guidance • Insecurely attached 28 • Low achievement motivation • Bad relationships, impulsive, aggressive • Negative developmental outcomes  These findings were generally cross-cultural o Bidirectional Influences  When children are very irritable or have difficult temperament  parents can be cooler and less responsive to the child.  Sometimes harsher parenting further promote the childs difficult behaviour  In a parenting experiment, some parents of disruptive kids were trained in how to deal with their children • Children were assessed yearly • Those whose parents were trained were less likely to be delinquent o Gender Identity and Socialization  Gender Identity • Sense of maleness or femaleness • Infants have some knowledge about gender early in life. • Can identify the voice of a boy and girl as distinct  Gender constancy • Understanding that eing male or female is permanent • Develops at around 6-7 yrs  Sex-Role Stereotypes • Beliefs about characteristics and behaviours appropriate for boys and girls • Acquired by children as Gender Identity develops  Socialization 29 • Process by which we acquire beliefs, values and behaviours of a group • How we acquire gender identity and sex-role stereotypes • Internalize expectations and standards of our family, and cultural groups o Understand what our society’s norms of behaviour are. • How Divorce and Remarriage affect Children? o Divorce  Leads to children having anxiety, fear, anger confusion, depression and behaviour problems  Low self-esteem, troubled relationships  More likely to drop out, be unemployed, drugs, unmarried teen parents  Amicable parental behaviours cushion negative effects o Remarriage and Stepfamilies  Takes along time to accept stepfamily  Children may be hostile to them  Works best when the custodial parent is warm, firm, and has primary responsibility for discipline.  Stepparent should be warm but support custodial parent’s authority • Sex Typing o Treating others differently based on whether they are male or female o Fathers are tougher with sons than daughters o Steer sons from things that are stereotypically feminine o Mothers play role in comforting in times of stress o Fathers encourage to take risks o Parents more likely to explain things at science exhibits to their sons than daughters. 30 o Sex-role stereotypes are also transmitted via observational learning  Children observe parents  Young children identify hammers and brooms as belonging with one gender or the other o Some trends are then believed to be blended within an androgynous gender identity.  i.e. person is both assertive and compassionate • Moral Development o Kohlberg’s Stage Model Level of Moral Reasoning Basis for Judging What Is Moral Level 1: Preconventional Actual or anticipated punishment and rewards, rather than internalized values Stage 1: Obeying rules and avoiding punishment Punishment/obedience orientation Stage 2: Self-interest and gaining rewards Instrumental/hedonistic orientation Level 2: Conventional Conformity to the expectations of social groups; person adopts other people's values Stage 3: Good child orientation Gaining approval and maintaining good relations with others Stage 4: Law and order Doing one's duty, showing respect for authority, and maintaining social order orientation Level 3: Postconventional Moral principles that are well thought out and part of one's belief and value system Stage 5: Social contract General principles agreed upon by society that foster community welfare orientation and individual rights; recognition that society can decide to modify laws that lose their social utility Stage 6: Universal ethical Abstract ethical principles based on justice and equality; following one's 31 principles conscience  Preconventional Moral reasoning • Based on anticipated punishments or reqwards • Stage 1 – what is the punishment • Stage 2 – what are the anticipated rewards, what is in one’s personal interest.  Conventional Moral Reasoning • Conforming to social expectations, laws, duties • Stage 3 – gaining people’s approval • Stage 4 – laws and duties must be obeyed because rules are meant to be followed  Post Conventional Moral Reasoning • Thought out general, moral principles • Stage 5 – recognizing importance of societal laws and taking individual rights into account • Stage 6 – morality based on abstract ethical universal principles of justice  Progress in moral reasoning depends on cognitive maturation • Need opportunity to confront moral issues • Culture, Gender and Moral Reasoning o As you age, preconventional shifts
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