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Chapter 10

Chapter 10.docx

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Psychology
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Psychology 1000
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Dr.Mike

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Chapter 10 Notes Intelligence Summarized - Ariel Yeheskel Intelligence • Doesn’t necessarily mean being smart • Definition: ability to acquire knowledge, think, reason effectively, deal adaptively with environment • Galton o Cousin of Darwin, influenced by notion of evolution o Thought that eminent people (intelligent ones) inherited their intelligence  Were more fit for thinking  Disregarded fact that those who were more successful were from privileged environment  Didn’t want to waste time training those who were of low ability  o Operational definition of intelligence: efficiency of nervous system  i.e. reaction speed, hand strength, sensory acuity  skull size proportional to brain volume  intelligence  didn’t look for social relevant measurements of mental ability • Binet o Believed Intelligence  collection of higher order abilities  With no correlation between those things o Created intelligence test o Test assumed that mental abilities develop with age and are proportional to age  Constant rate of increase of mental competence o His tests yielded a mental age.  Comparison of mental “age” relative to scores of average child of that age o William Stern’s Intelligence Quotient (IQ)  Ratio of mental age to chronological age x 100 Chapter 10 Notes Intelligence Summarized - Ariel Yeheskel  Quotient method not used  I.Q = MA/CA x 100 o Stanford-Binet  Used verbal terms adapted for America  Screened US army recruits in WWI o Wechsler –  Created a new test: WAIS (Wechsler Adult intelligence Scale), WISC (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children) and WPPSI (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence o Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS – IV) also WISC – IV  Devised tests for adults and also for kids  WAIS – IV • Has 10 subscales with both verbal and performance measures • More scales than Stanford Binet  Verbal – What is the capital of France?  Picture Arrangement – tester shows series of cartoon pictures, and then arrange them in proper temporal sequence  Uses Deviation I.Q. calculate a distribution, and then get a z-score and then use that info.  Bell shaped distribution  68% are within 1 SD of the mean  Another 14% within the second SD on each side  Always Mean of 100, Standard Deviation of 15  Stanford Binet now uses deviation too o Concerns  Reliability: Consistency of Measurement • Need to see correlation of 0.80 to 0.95 for a test retest Chapter 10 Notes Intelligence Summarized - Ariel Yeheskel • For Stanford Binet and WAIS – IV  Validity • Also need them to measure intelligence well • Does it measure what it is supposed to? • Taking the test and then correlating it with Achievement o Range 0.3 to 0.7  Abysmal o Measuring something, but it doesn’t have anything to do with actual achievement  • Nature of Intelligence – 2 Types of Approaches o Psychometric approach  Looks at structure of intellect  Statistically study/analysis of psychological tests • Tries to identify and measure abilities  Uses Factor analysis • Looks at correlations between different tests, and determine whether there is a common cognitive ability • Infers nature of abilities • Reduce large number of measures to small ones • High correlation  same basic ability o g factor – Intelligence as General Mental Capacity  since subjects in school are always positively correlated, it could be there is a general factor of intelligence (the g factor)  g factor – general intelligence • cuts across all tasks, makes up core of intelligence Chapter 10 Notes Intelligence Summarized - Ariel Yeheskel o Primary Mental Abilities  Binet and Thurstone – intelligence is multiplex • Better statstics – does more complex factor analysis • Found that after factor analysis there are independent primary mental abilities o There is no such thing as the g, there are different factors which are independent of one another. • Predicts that 4 different tests would not be correlation between all of the tests o There could be between some of the tests. But between 2 different primary mental abilities there would be no correlation o But between tests that are within the same primary mental ability there would be strong correlation o There could be very little correlation between things from different primary mental abilities • Thurstone ‘s 7 primary abiltiies o Verbal comprehension o Verbal fluency o Computation o Spatial visualization o Associative memory o Perceptual speed o Reasoning • Guilford says there is 120 primary mental ability • How many are there really? o Depends on number of tests and number of factors that get extracted  Depends on how many subtests Chapter 10 Notes Intelligence Summarized - Ariel Yeheskel  Depends on how u measure intelligence  Instead of being 1 general g factor, there are 7 distinct abilities: • Thurstone’s Primary Mental Abilities: o Space – visusospatioal reasoning of visual scenes o Verbal Comprehension – understanding verbal statements o Word Fluency – producing verbal statements o Perceptual Speed- efficiency of recognizing visual patterns o Rote Memory – memorizing o Reasoning – dealing with new problems • Others believe there are over 100 other specific measurable abilities o Crystallized and Fluid Intelligence  Crystallized intelligence • Using previously acquired (crystalized) knowledge to solve current problems • Basis of expertise o Depends on long term memory – need to retrieve info • Needed for vocab and information tests • Increases over span of adulthood – memory acquires more info  Fluid intelligence • Ability to deal with new problems o See relationships between stimuli, and infer between things o Abstract reasoning, logical thinking, info management • Uses short term memory o Solved on the mind’s blackboard Chapter 10 Notes Intelligence Summarized - Ariel Yeheskel • Have this early in life too, in order to solve problems  Aging affects crystallized and fluid differently, so they must be different classes of mental abilities o Carroll’s Three Stratum Model – Modern Synthesis  Divided mental skills into 3 levels of mental skills in a heirarchial model • There is the general – where the general intelligence (g factor is located) • Branches out into the broad: Fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence, General Memory and Learning, Broad Visual Perception, Auditory Perception, Retrieval ability, Cognitive speediness, processing speed • Then this feeds into the narrow stratum - where there are specific tasks  In narrow stratum there is correlation of 0.3 with other skills  Broad stratum – those furthest to left – more related to the g factor • Cognitive Process Approach o How cognitive processes and info processing  intellectual ability  Triarchic Theory of Intelligence • Underlying cognitive processes feed into Intellectual comepetence • 3 Types of Intelligence: o Analytical Intelligence  Academically oriented problem solving skills (book smarts) o Practical Intelligence  Skills for mananging day to day life (street smarts) o Creative Intelligence  Adapting to new problems Chapter 10 Notes Intelligence Summarized - Ariel Yeheskel o These intelligences generally don’t mean that there is an overlap between them (as opposed to emphasis of correlation in psychometrics) • 3 Psychological Process Components – play role in intelligence o Metacomponents:  Higher order processing – • Planning and regualation of performance of tasks  Problem Solving Skills • Identifying problems, hypotheses and strategies • Solving the problems  Intelligenct people  invest in metacomponents  frame problems so its easier to solve them o Performance Components:  The actual mental processes which need to occur for the task to be performed • Processing the perceptions • Applying and retrieving schemas • Generating responses o Knowledge-Acquisition Components  Learning from experience  Retrieving from memory and storing in memory  Use crystallized intelligence • Broader Concepts of Intelligence: o Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences: 8 Different Types of Abilities  Linguistic – use of language  Logical Mathematical Chapter 10 Notes Intelligence Summarized - Ariel Yeheskel  Visuospatial – solving spatial problems  Muscial – pitch, rhythm, and produce music  Bodily-Kinasthetic – control body movements, balance oneself, manipulate objects  Interpersonal – understand others  Intrapersonal – understand oneself  Naturalistic – understand natural phenomena  Existential - #9 – understand and ponder questions about meaning of existence/life  Only linguistic, logical-mathematical, visuospatial can be measured others cant o Emotional Intelligence (EI)  Ability to read and respond accurately and respond appropriately to other’s emotions  Awareness of emotions  Regulation and control of emotions  Tests – Mayer-Salovey – Caruso – emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) • Looks at accuracy of judging emotional and facial expressions, and in emotion/tone of pictures • Looks at how one would use emotion to facilitate thought (cognitive) o Give them questions on how one would enhance a type of thinking and what kind of emotions would help them be successful • Managing emotions o How people can manipulate their own or other people’s emotions • Very reliable test Chapter 10 Notes Intelligence Summarized - Ariel Yeheskel o Generally emotionally intelligent people  stronger and closer bonds with others  more successful relationships in life o Less likely to be depressed if they can control their emotions • Emotional competence – like emotional intelligence  doesn’t look at the mental skills though. • Measuring intelligence o Wechsler  Yields strengths and weaknesses of individual  Measures array of mental abilities  3 different IQs given  Verbal IQ, Performance IQ, and Full-Scale IQ • Differences between performance and IQ  can be due to poverty o Stanford Binet –  Subdivided into IQ scores for Verbal Reasoning, Abstract/Visual reasoning, Quantitative Reasoning, short-term memory • Theory Based Intelligence Tests o Distinction between crystallized and fluid intelligence  affected intelligence testing  Tests now measure fluid and crystallized abilities spearatesly o Triarchic Ability Test (STAT) – measures 3 forms of intelligence (analytic practical and creative)  So schools can optimize students learning by focusing on their strengths. • Aptitude or Acheivement o Debate whether to measure someones aptitude or what they already know o Achievement Tests  Pros: • Find out how much have learned so far Chapter 10 Notes Intelligence Summarized - Ariel Yeheskel • Good predictor of future performance  Con: Assumes everyone had same opportunity to learn o Aptitude Tests  Pros: • Beyond prior learning • Measures potential • How they react/respond to problems  Con: hard to write tests that don’t use prior learning o Tests tend to measure combo of aptitude and Acheivement • Pyschological Standards for Intelligence Tests o Psychological test  Measures individual differences for psychological concept/construct (i.e. a mental ability)  Intelligence /Mental ability is the construct, the score on that test is how that construct gets operationally defined • Test must be properly designed such that the behaviours will serve oas indicators of intellectual abilties  3 Important concepts: reliability, validity, standardization • Reliability o How consistent the measurement will be o Test Retest Reliability  How stable the measurement is  If there is high correlation between 2 of same tests on separate occasions  reliable  Significant change  not reliable  Tend to be very reliable after age 7 o Internal consistency Chapter 10 Notes Intelligence Summarized - Ariel Yeheskel  How consistent a measurement is within a test  Does it measure what its says its measuring – do all the items it measures measure the same skill in the subset • This can be shown by high correlation among the test items o Interjudge Reliability  Different judges need to be able to judge the same behaviour and give it the same score  Do scorers agree? • Validity o How well it measures what is says it measures?  Construct Validity • Does the test measure the construct it was designed to measure?  Content validity • Does it measure everything that’s assumed to be under that construct? o Or does it leave out some subsets of those constructs – i.e. not test everything within 1 skill  Criterion-related validity • Do the criteria (of the test) correlate meaningfully with the actual construct, so that the test can meaningfully measure one’s future abilities or aptitude? o Criterion Measures (how high criterion related validity has been used to predict things)  Academic performance • IQ correlates generally with academic performance Chapter 10 Notes Intelligence Summarized - Ariel Yeheskel • i.e. SAT  predictor of university grades (but correlation is under 0.50) so take high school grades into account • Miller Analogies Test  used for grad students o Predicts number of years required to attain degree, grades, ratings, etc.  Job Performance, Income and Longevity • Intelligent people  prestigious occupations • Within siblings –those who had IQ of 120 or more made 18k more per year than their average siblings • Intelligence  correlation with socioeconomic status in adulthood o Higher job performance o Makes people noticed • Intelligence  better recorvery from brain injury • Longer life (because more likely to live and work in safer environment and have better nutrition) • Standardization o 2 Meanings – Establishing Norms and Maintaining Rigoruous Test environments  Development of norms • Need large representative sample from different parts of population (age segments of pop.) • Use this to provide basis for someone’s individual score , so that there is meaning to one’s score Chapter 10 Notes Intelligence Summarized - Ariel Yeheskel • Average IQ – 100 even if the performance on test changes over time  Normal Distribution • Bell curve  most scores cluster near centre • Farther from 100, less people in your category
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