Textbook Notes (368,064)
Canada (161,611)
Psychology (4,887)
Psychology 1000 (1,620)
Chapter

Chapter Nine pdf.pdf

9 Pages
56 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 1000
Professor
Tom Haffie
Semester
Winter

Description
January 9 Chapter Nine - Language and Thinking▯ ▯ Back Story ▯ • child was found in forest, made few sounds when found - was taught to read and write some worlds, never learned to speak • child was kept isolated in a locked room her entire life, her vocabulary increased but her ability to speak stalled • child was locked in basement most of her life, seemed able to acquire language but was institutionalized ▯ Language▯ • consists of a system of symbols and rules of combining the symbols that generate a number of possible messages/meanings Psycholinguistics - scientific study of the psychological view of language and how people understand, produce and acquire language ▯ Adaptive Functions of Language▯ • brain achieved its present form around 50,000 years ago - brain hasn't evolved much since but cognitive and linguistic skills have • humans have adapted to more socially oriented lifestyles • more need for social customs, communication, passing down knowledge - resulted in development of language ▯ Basic Properties of Language▯ 1. Language is Symbolic and Structured - Organized • language uses sounds, written characters to represent objects, events, ideas, etc • grammar - set of rules that dictate how symbols can be combined 2. Language Conveys Meaning • understanding semantics - meaning of a word or a sentence 3. Language is Generative and Permits Displacement • generativity - symbols of language can be combined to make an infinite number of messages displacement - language allows us to • communicate about events and objects that are not physically present ▯ The Structure of Language▯ Noam Chomsky: Transformational Grammar Surface Structure and Deep Structure • surface structure - symbols that are used and their order (sequence) • deep structure - underlying meaning of the January 9 combined symbols • a sentence can have different surface structures but the same deep structure - vice versa • rules to change the actual meaning into the sequence of words The Hierarchical Structure of Language ▯ • phoneme - smallest unit of speech sound in a language • only 45 in English • they have no inherit meaning but alter meaning when combined with other elements phonemes are combined into morphemes - smallest unit of meaning • • final level of hierarchy is discourse - sentences are combined into paragraphs, articles, books, etc • words - 250,000 to 300,00 words in a good, unabridged dictionary • most anything in English can be said with a vocal of 850 words • telephone conversations - 96% of “talk” is made up of 737 words • correlation word frequency and world length = -0.75 • the longer the word, the less likely you are to use it ▯ Syntax: Understanding and Producing Language ▯ PhonologicalAmbiguity • confusion of sounds (knock knock jokes) LexicalAmbiguity • confusion or double meaning of words (“I work as a baker because I knead the dough) SyntacticAmbiguity • confusion in structure SemanticAmbiguity • confusion of overall meaning Kids progress from phonological and lexical to syntactic and semantic The Role of Bottom-Up Processing • gathering information from linguistic stimuli involves both bottom-up and top-down processing • bottom up processing - individual elements are analyzed then combined to form a unified image • analyzing as a set of building blocks - using phonemes to create morphemes to create words, etc The Role of Top-Down Processing sensory info is interpreted from preexisting knowledge • • as you write you are calling on previous knowledge • speech segmentation - perceiving where each word begins and ends within a sentence • breaks in speech usually do not correspond to physical breaks in words Experiment: Irwin Pollack and J.M. Pickett • recorded conversations of four female students and text passages by four adult men • participants listened to one, two, three and four word segments • were able to guess initial word 70-100% of the time depending on the speaker Pragmatics: The Social Context of Language January 9 • a knowledge of the practical aspect of using language • helps you get your point across to people of what you're trying to say • example of how top-down processing influences language use Language Functions, the Brain and Sex Differences • language functions are distributed in many areas of the brain • aphasia - damage to Broca’s or Wernicke’s area resulting in impairment of speech • women tend to have less damage to their language with left hemisphere damage - function is shared within both hemispheres compared to males ▯ Acquiring a First Language▯ Biological Foundations • children are able to master language early in their lives • children are able to perceive the entire range of phonemes but discriminate the ones that are from their native tongue • LAD: language acquisition device - innate biological mechanism that contains general grammar rules • set of switches - where to insert a pronoun before a verb, switched on in one language and off in another Social Learning Processes • parents tend to use a child-directed speech towards their children, also point to objects and name them • Skinner - language acquisition is based strongly on adults’positive reinforcement/correction - not necessarily true • parents tend not to correct their child’s grammar - child’s language is not an imitation of its parents • true even for deaf infants, babbling has no convention learning, but takes on a social quality in hearing infants: rules of interaction • by 2 months, infant show phoneme discrimination Study: Jusczyk (1985) • sucking rates of “PA” vs. “BA” • sensitivity to foreign contrasts drops as infant approaches 12 months • Suggests: infants are “hard-wired” for language acquisition • prepared for any language Motherese • high pitch, slow rate, exaggerated tone • adults shift “automatically” • infants prefer this type of speech to normal adult speech • learning about pausing, pitch, characteristics, etc LASS: language acquisition support system (Bruner) - factors in the social environment that aid in the learning of a language Developmental Timetable and Sensitive Periods • there is developmental timetable that is common to all cultures - a child’s language skills to develop based on age January 9 • sechildren who are deprived from language still can acquire the skills if they aren't passed • puberty ▯ Bilingualism: Learning a Second Language ▯ • a second language is best learned when it is taught during the sensitive period • French immersion programs are now in place to allow children an early exposure to a second language • bilingual children show higher cognitive processing, reading, perceptual tasks, etc compared to monolingual children Is Earlier Better? Study (Johnson and Newport): compared two groups of immigrants who had moved during early vs late years then asked to determine whether or not a sentence was grammatically correct •participants who had moved in their later years did far worse on the task •proved the critical period hypothesis Study (Birdsong and Molis): •the group who arrived before 16 performed better than the group who arrived after 16 •difference - age made a difference on who did better on the task for the group who arrived after 16 ▯ Linguistic Influences on Thinking▯ Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis (Lee Whorf): language not only influences but also determines what we are capable of thinking Study (Rosch): compared two different cultures based on how many words they had for a certain idea •a group who only had two words for colours performed just as well as a group who has many words Study: compared English andAfrican children and how well they distinguished between different hues •English language has 11 words compared to 5 in theAfrican language •English children had a greater ability to distinguish between the different colours • language may not determine how we think but can influence how we think ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ January 14 Thinking & Problem Solving▯ ▯ Language Learning▯ How do infants acquire language? The One-Word Speaker • 5 to 8 months of age, respond
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 1000

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit