Textbook Notes (363,141)
Canada (158,218)
Psychology (4,731)
Psychology 1000 (1,558)
Terry Biggs (193)
Chapter 9-13

Psych Chapters 9-13 Summaries.docx

36 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Psychology 1000
Terry Biggs

Page 316 – 349 Chapter 9: Language Mental Representations include images, ideas, concepts and principles Language Language consists of a system of symbols and rules for combining these symbols in ways that can generate infinite number of possible messages and meanings Psycholinguistics is the scientific study of the psychological aspects of language, such as how people understand, produce and acquire language Adaptive Functions of Language ⋅ Human thought and behaviour depend on more than the physical structure of the brain ⋅ Some evolutionary theorists believe that the use of language evolved as people gathered to form larger social units ⋅ Extremely powerful learning mechanism – oral and written form Properties of Language Language is Symbolic and Structured ⋅ Language uses sounds, written characters, or some other system of symbols to represent ⋅ Language also has a rule – governed structure Grammar is the set of rules that dictate how symbols can be combined to create meaningful units of communication Ex. “zpflrovc” is not an English word because 5 consonants cannot be put in an unbroken sequence Syntax is the rules that govern the order of words Ex. “Bananas have sale for I” – correct way to state that would be “I have Bananas for sale” Language Conveys Meaning Semantics are the meaning of words and sentences which is sometimes difficult to achieve Ex. When you ask your friend “How did you do on the test?” and their response is “I nailed it”, you know that your friend is not saying “I hammered the test to the desk with a nail.” Language is Generative and Permits Displacement Generativity means that the symbols of language can be combined to generate an infinite number of messages that have novel meaning Ex. 26 letters in the alphabet, half a million words, and limitless sentences Displacement refers to the fact that language allows us to communicate about events and objects that are not physically present The Structure of Language Surface Structure and Deep Structure Surface Structure consists of the symbols that are used and their order Deep Structure refers to the underlying meaning of the combined symbols, which brings us back to the issue of semantics Ex. 1. Same ate the cake 2. The cake was eaten by Sam 3. Eaten by Sam was the cake – different surface structures but the same deep structure ⋅ When we read or hear speech, we are moving from the surface structure to deep structure: from the way a sentence looks or sounds to its deeper level of meaning The Hierarchical Structure of Language Phoneme is the smallest unit of speech sound in a language that can signal a difference in meaning ⋅ No meaning but they alter meaning when combined with other elements ⋅ Ex. The phoneme d creates a different meaning from the phoneme l when it precedes og (Dog vs. Log) Morphemes are the smallest units of meaning in a language ⋅ Ex. Dog, log and ball are all morphemes, as are prefixes and suffixes such as pre-, un-, -ed, and –ous. ⋅ Morphemes are not always syllables ⋅ Ex. “s” is not a syllable, but the final s on a noun is a morpheme that means “plural” therefore the word fan s has 1 syllable but two morphemes, the word play er s has 2 syllables but 3 morphemes Discourse is when sentences are combined into paragraphs, articles, books, conversations etc. Understanding and Producing Language The Role of Bottom – Up Processing Bottom – Up Processing is an individual element of stimulus that are analyzes and then combined to form a unified perception ⋅ Specialized cell groups in the brain are (1) analyzing the basic elements (contours, angles of lines) of the visual patterns that are right before the eyes and (2) feeding this information to other cell groups that lead to perceive these patterns as letters The Role of Top – Down Processing Top – Down Processing is when sensory information is interpreted in light of existing knowledge, concepts, ideas and expectations Ex. A store titled “The Bead Store” was often mistaken for “The Bread Store” Speech Segmentation involves perceiving where each word within a spoken sentence begins and ends Pragmatics: The Social Context of Language ⋅ It takes more than having a vocabulary and arranging words grammatically to understand language and communicate effectively with other Pragmatics is knowledge of the practical aspects of using language ⋅ Occurs in a social context and pragmatic knowledge not only help one understand what people are saying, but also makes sure that other people get the point of what someone is communicating ⋅ Rules that guide communication between individuals include:  Messages should be as clear as possible – depending on who you are talking to (foreigner, baby, adult), you change your speech rate, choice of words and sentence complexity Language Functions, the Brain and Sex Differences ⋅ Broca’s area, located in the left hemisphere’s frontal lobe, is most involved in word production and articulation ⋅ Wernicke’s area, in the rear part of the temporal lobe is more involved in speech comprehension Aphasia is an impairment in speech comprehension and/or production that can be permanent or temporary as a result of damage in one or both areas Acquiring a First Language ⋅ Represents the joint influences of biology and environment ⋅ Many experts believe that humans are naturally born linguistics Biological Foundations ⋅ Despite limited thinking skills, children begin to master language early in life without any formal instruction ⋅ All adult languages throughout the world seem to have common underlying structural characteristics ⋅ Noam Chomsky proposed that all humans are born with a language acquisition device Language Acquisition Device is an innate biological mechanism that contains the general grammatical rules common to all languages ⋅ Languages contain such things as noun phrases and verb phrases that are arranged in particular ways Social Learning Process ⋅ Early on, mothers and fathers attract children’s attention and maintain their interest by conversing with them in what has been termed child – directed speech, which is a high – pitched intonation that seems to be used universally ⋅ Parents teach children words by pointing out objects and naming them and by reading aloud ⋅ B.F. skinner developed an operant conditioning explanation for language acquisition  Premise was that children’s language development is strongly governed by adults’ positive reinforcement of appropriate language and no reinforcement or correction of inappropriate verbalization ⋅ Jerome Bruner proposed the term language acquisition support system (LASS) to represent factors in the social environment that facilitate the learning of a language Development Timetable and Sensitive Periods Age Speech Characteristics 1­3 Months Infant can distinguish speech from nonspeech sounds and prefers speech sounds (phonemes) – crying and cooing 4­6 Months Babbling sounds begin to occur, child vocalizes in response to verbalization of others 7­11 Months Only phonemes heard in the language spoken by others in the environment, child moves tongue with vocalization and discriminates some words without understanding their meaning 12 Months First recognizable words typically spoken are one – word utterances to name familiar people and objects Ex. “Da-da” or “block” 12­18 Months Child increases knowledge of word meanings and begins to use single words to express whole phrases or requests, primarily uses nouns 18­24 Months Vocab expands to between 50 and 100 words, first rudimentary sentences appear, usually consisting of two words with limited use of articles (the, a), conjunctions (and), or auxiliary verbs (can, will) 2­4 Years Vocab expands rapidly at the ate of several hundred words every 6 months, begins to express concepts with words and uses language to describe imaginary objects 4­5 Years Child has learned the basic grammatical rules for combining nouns, adjective, articles, conjunctions and verbs into meaningful sentences Bilingualism: Learning a Second Language ⋅ Second language is learned best and spoken most fluently when it is learned during the sensitive periods of childhood ⋅ Vocabulary of language can be learned at any age, but mastering syntax or grammar depends on early acquisition ⋅ Bilingual speakers scored at least as well as monolinguals on performance contrary to previous beliefs that bilingual speakers were disadvantaged ⋅ Bilingual children also perform better on perceptual tasks Learning a Second Language: Is Earlier Better? ⋅ Some psycholinguistics believe that there is a critical period for learning a second language that ends in childhood or possibly in the early teens Linguistic Influences on Thinking Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis proposes that language not only influences but also determines what we are capable of thinking Thinking Thought, Brain and Mind ⋅ Thinking may seem to be the internal language of the mind – somewhat like “inner speech” but it actually involves man mental activities Propositional Thought expresses a proposition or statement such as “I’m hungry” or “It’s almost time for dinner” Imaginal Thought consists of images that we can see, hear or feel in our mind Motoric Thought related to mental representation of motor movements, such as throwing an object ⋅ All three modes of thinking enter into our abilities to reason, solve problems and engage in many forms of intelligent behaviour Concepts and Propositions Propositions are statements that express ideas ⋅ All propositions consist of concepts combined in a particular way Ex. “College students are intelligent people” – proposition in which the two concepts “college students” and “intelligent people” are linked by the verb are Concepts are basic units of semantic memory – mental categories into which we place objects, activities, abstractions and events that have essential features in common ⋅ Can be acquired through explicit instruction or through our own observations of similarities and differences among various objects and events Prototypes are the most typical and familiar members of a category or a class Ex. “Vegetable” is a concept but one would have a difficult time defining a vegetable therefore, they would use a prototype (Broccoli) to explain Reasoning ⋅ Helps us avoid hazards and time – consuming efforts of trial and error Deductive Reasoning Deductive Reasoning proposes that we reason from the top down, that is, from general principles to a conclusion about a specific case ⋅ When people reason deductively, they begin with a set of premises and determine what the premises imply about a specific situation ⋅ Strongest and most valid form of reasoning because the conclusion cannot be false if the premises are true Inductive Reasoning Inductive Reasoning suggests that we reason from the bottom up, starting with specific facts and trying to develop a general principle ⋅ Inductive reasoning leads to likelihood rather than certainty Stumbling Blocks in Reasoning ⋅ Several factors may prevent us from selective the information needed to draw sound conclusions 1. Distraction by Irrelevant Information 2. Belief Bias – the tendency to abandon logical rules in favour of our own personal beliefs 3. Emotions and Framing – framing refers to the idea that the same information, problem or options can be structured and present in different ways Problem Solving 1. Understanding, or framing, the problem ⋅ How we mentally frame a problem can make a huge difference 2. Generating potential solutions ⋅ Begin to formulate potential solutions or explanations 3. Testing the Solutions ⋅ Test the solution in hopes of seeking to disconfirm one or more of the possibilities 4. Evaluating Results ⋅ Evaluate the solution by asking ourselves “would there have been an easier or more effective way to accomplish the same objective?” The Role of Problem – Solving Schemas Problem – Solving Schemas are like mental blueprints or step – by – step scripts for selecting information and solving specialized classes of problems Algorithms and Heuristics Algorithms are formulas or procedures that automatically generate correct solutions ⋅ Ex. Mathematical and chemical formulas Heuristics are general problem – solving strategies that we apply to certain class of situations ⋅ Ex. Means – Ends Analysis is when we identify differences between the present situation and the desired state, or goal and then make changes that will reduce these differences ⋅ Ex. Subgoal Analysis involves formulating subgoals or intermediate steps, toward a solution Uncertainty, Heuristics and Decision Making The Representativeness Heuristics The Representativeness Heuristic is used to infer how closely something or someone fits our prototype for a particular concept, or class, and therefore how likely it is to be a member of that class The Availability Heuristic The Availability Heuristic causes use to base judgements and decisions on the availability of information in memory Confirmation Bias and Overconfidence Confirmation Bias is the tendency to look for evidence that will confirm what they currently believe rather than looking for evidence that could disconfirm their beliefs Overconfidence is the tendency to overestimate one’s correctness in factual knowledge, beliefs and decisions Knowledge, Expertise, and Wisdom Acquiring Knowledge: Schemas and Scripts Schema is a mental framework, an organized pattern of thought about some aspect of the world ⋅ Algorithms and heuristics are types of schemas – problem solving schemas that provide mental frameworks for solving certain types of problems Script is a mental framework concerning a sequence of events that usually unfolds in a regular, almost standardized order What is Wisdom? Wisdom represents a system of knowledge about the meaning and conduct of life ⋅ Wisdom has 5 major components: (1) Rich factual knowledge about life (2) Rich procedural knowledge about life – making decisions, giving advice (3) Understanding of lifespan contexts – family, friends, work (4) Awareness of the relativism of values and priorities and (5) Ability to recognize and manage uncertainty Mental Imagery Mental Image is a representation of a stimulus that originates inside your brain rather than from external sensory input Ex. Nighttime dreams are the most common forms of mental imagery Are Mental Images Pictures in the Mind? ⋅ Mental images function in ways analogous to actual visual images and are represented in the brain as a type of perceptual code Mental Imagery as Perception ⋅ The greater the distance between the two locations on the mental image of the map, the longer it took participants to scan and find the second location ⋅ Supports the view that mental images involves a spatial representation Metacognition: Knowing your own Cognitive Abilities Recognizing What You Do and Don’t Know Metacognition refers to your awareness and understanding of your own cognitive abilities ⋅ Truly knowing whether you do or do not understand the concept ⋅ People who display good metacomprehension are accurate in judging what they do or don’t know ⋅ Metamemory represents your awareness and knowledge of your memory capabilities Page 356 – 388 Chapter 10: Intelligence Intelligence in Historical Perspective Sir Francis Galton: Quantifying Mental Ability ⋅ Believed that eminent people had “inherited mental constitutions” that made them more fit for thinking than their less successful counterparts ⋅ Dismissed the fact that the more successful people he studied almost invariably came from privileged environments ⋅ Attempted to demonstrate a biological basis for eminence by showing that people who were socially and occupationally successful would also perform better on a variety of laboratory tasks Alfred Binet’s Mental Tests ⋅ In developing his tests, Binet made to assumptions about intelligence 1. Mental abilities develop with age 2. The rate at which people gain mental competence is a characteristic of the person and is fairly constant over time ⋅ Result of the testing was a score called the mental image  Ex. If an 8 year old child could solve problems at the level of the average 10 year old, the child would be said to have a mental age of 10 ⋅ Concept of mental age was broadened by William Stern ⋅ Sterns Intelligence Quotient (IQ) was the ratio of mental age to chronological age, multiplied by 100 Binet’s Legacy: An Intelligence – Testing Industry Emerges ⋅ Terman revised Binet’s test and it became known as the Stanford – Binet The Nature of Intelligence ⋅ Two major approaches in the study of intelligence – psychometric approach and the cognitive process approach The Psychometric Approach: The Structure of Intellect Psychometrics is the statistical study of psychological tests ⋅ Tries to identify and measure the abilities that underlie individual differences in performance Factor Analysis Factor Analysis reduces a large number of measures to a smaller number of clusters or factors with each cluster containing variables that correlate highly with one another but less highly with variables in other clusters The g Factor: Intelligence as General Mental Capacity G – Factor, also known as general intelligence measures intellectual performance by whatever special abilities might be required to perform that particular task Intelligence as Specific Mental Abilities ⋅ Human mental performance depends not on a general factor but rather on seven distinct abilities which he called primary mental abilities Crystallized and Fluid Intelligence Crystallized Intelligence is the ability to apply previously acquired knowledge to current problems ⋅ Basis for expertise depends on the ability to retrieve previously learned information and problem – solving schemas from long – term memory Fluid Intelligence is defined as the ability to deal with novel problem – solving situations for which personal experience does not provide a solution ⋅ Fluid intelligence requires the abilities to reason abstractly, think logically and manage information in work memory so that new problems can be solved on the blackboard of the mind Carroll’s Three – Stratum Model: A Modern Synthesis The Three – Stratum Theory of Cognitive Abilities establishes three levels of mental skills – general, broad and narrow – arranged in hierarchical model Cognitive Process Approaches: The Nature of Intelligent Thinking Cognitive Process Theories explore the specific information – processing and cognitive processes that underlie intellectual ability Triarchic Theory of Intelligence addresses both the psychological processes involved in intelligence behaviour and the diverse forms that intelligence can take ⋅ Sternberg’s theory divides the cognitive processes that underlie intelligent behaviour into three specific components 1. Metacomponents are the higher – order processes used to plan and regulate task performance  Include problem – solving skills such as formulating hypothesis and strategies, testing them logically  Fundamental sources of individual differences in fluid intelligence 2. Performance Components are the actual mental processes used to perform the task  Include perceptual processing, retrieving appropriate memories and schemas from long – term memory and generating responses 3. Knowledge – Acquisition Components allow us to learn from our experiences, store information in memory and combine new insights with previously acquired information ⋅ Sternberg believes that there is more than one kind of intelligence ⋅ Suggests that environmental demands may call for three different classes of adaptive problem solving 1. Analytical Intelligence involves the kinds of academically oriented problem – solving skills measured by traditional intelligence tests 2. Practical Intelligence refers to the skills needed to cope with everyday demands and to manage oneself and other people effectively 3. Creative Intelligence comprises the mental skills needed to deal adaptively with novel problems Broader Conceptions of Intelligence: Beyond Mental Competencies Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences ⋅ Believe that there are 8 kinds of intelligence 1. Linguistic Intelligence – Ability to use language well 2. Logical – Mathematical Intelligence – Reason mathematically and logically 3. Visuospatial Intelligence – Ability to solve spatial problems 4. Musical Intelligence 5. Bodily – Kinesthetic Intelligence – Ability to control body movements and manipulate objects 6. Interpersonal Intelligence – Ability to understand and relate to others 7. Intrapersonal Intelligence – Ability to understand oneself 8. Naturalistic Intelligence – Ability to detect and understand phenomena in natural world Emotional Intelligence Emotional Intelligence involves the ability to read others’ emotions accurately, to respond to them appropriately, to motivate oneself, to be aware of one’s own emotions and too regular and control one’s own emotional responses The Measurement of Intelligence Should we test for Aptitude or Achievement? Achievement Tests are designed to find out how much they have learned so far in their lives ⋅ Argument for: Good predictor of future performance in a similar situation ⋅ Argument against: Assumes that everyone has had the same opportunity to learn the material being tested Aptitude Tests measure applicant’s potential for future learning and performance ⋅ Argument for: Fairer because it depends less on prior knowledge than on a person’s ability to react to the problems presented on the test ⋅ Argument against: Difficult to construct a test that is independent of prior learning Psychometric Standards for Intelligence Tests Psychological Tests are methods used for measuring individual differences related to some psychological concept, or construct, based on a sample of relevant behaviour in a scientifically designed and controlled situation Reliability Reliability refers to consistency of measurement ⋅ One of the most important forms of reliability is consistency over time Test – Retest Reliability is assessed by administering the measure to the same group of participants on two or more separate occasions and correlating two or more sets of scores Internal Consistency is another form of reliability that has to do with the consistency of measurement within the test itself Interjudge Reliability refers to consistency of measurement when different people observe the same event or score the same test Validity Validity refers to how well a test actually measures what it is designed to measure Construct Validity exists when a test successfully measures the psychological construct it is designed to measure, as indicated by relations between test scores and other behaviours that it should be related to Content Validity refers to whether the items on a test measure all the knowledge or skills that are assumed to underlie the construct of interest Criterion Validity refers to the ability of test scores to correlate with meaningful criterion measures Standardization Standardization has two meanings: (1) the development of norms and (2) rigorously controlled testing procedures Norms are test scores derived from a large sample that represents particular age segments of the population Normal Distribution is a bell – shaped curve with most scores clustering around the centre of the curve ⋅ Norms are collected for mental skills and the scores usually form a normal distribution Static and Dynamic Testing Static Testing goal is to make sure that all testees are responding to as similar a stimulus situation as possible so that their scores will be solely a reflection of their ability Dynamic Testing suggests that the standard testing is followed up with an interaction in which the examiner gives the respondent guided feedback on how to improve performance and observes how the person utilizes the information Heredity, Environment, and Intelligence ⋅ The environment can influence how genes express themselves ⋅ Genetic factors can influence the effects produced by the environment ⋅ Intelligence has a strong genetic component with a heritability coefficients ranging between 0.50 and 0.70 ⋅ Many children begin their lives in conditions that are not conducive to develop intellectual skills Group Differences in Intelligence Ethnic Group Differences Are the Tests Biased? ⋅ Can take two forms 1. Outcome Bias refers to the extent that a test underestimates a person’s true intellectual ability 2. Predictive Bias occurs if the test successfully predicts criterion measures, such as school or job performance, for some groups but not for others ⋅ Defenders of intelligence tests dismiss both types of bias – point out that ethnic group differences appear through intelligence tests, not just on those items that would appear to be culturally biased ⋅ Also point out that intelligence test scores predict the performance of minority group members as accurately What Factors Underlie the Differences? ⋅ Family environment alone could account for about two – thirds of the test score gap ⋅ Social environment ⋅ Tendency to overemphasize genetic differences between groups Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities ⋅ The gender differences lie not in levels of general intelligence but rather in the patterns of cognitive skills that men and women exhibit ⋅ Men tend to outperform women slight on certain spatial tasks, are more accurate in target – directed skills and perform slightly better on tests of mathematical reasoning ⋅ Women perform better on tests of perceptual speed, verbal fluency and mathematical calculation and on precise manual tasks requiring fine motor coordination ⋅ Environmental explanation focuses on the socialization experiences that males and females have as they grow up, especially the kinds of sex – types activities that boys and girls are steered to ⋅ Biological explanations focus on the effects of hormones on the developing brain Extremes of Intelligence The Intellectually Gifted ⋅ Gifted children’s success is a product of three interacting factors 1. Highly developed mental abilities – not only general intelligence but also specific mental abilities related to one’s chosen field 2. Ability to engage in creative problem solving, that is, to come up with novel and unconventional ideas to just their potential value and to apply them to challenging problems 3. Motivation and Dedication The Cognitively Disabled ⋅ Most members that fall into this group are capable of functioning adequately in mainstream society, holding jobs and raising families provided they are given appropriate social and educational support ⋅ Mildly disabled children can attend school but have difficulties reading, writing, memory and math ⋅ Cognitive disability has a variety of causes: Genetic, other biological factors, or environmental factors ⋅ Mental disability can also be caused by accidents at birth and by disease experienced by the mother during pregnancy Pg. 392 - 437 Chapter 11 – Motivation and Emotion Perspectives on Motivation Instinct Theory and Evolutionary Psychology Instinct is an inherited predisposition to behave in a specific and predictable way when exposed to a particular stimulus ⋅ They have a genetic basis, are found universally among all members of the species, do not depend on learning and have survival value for the organism ⋅ Human instinct theories faded because there was a lack of evidence therefore scientists examine hereditary contributions to human motivation more productively ⋅ Modern evolutionary psychologists propose that many “psychological” motives have evolutionary underpinnings that are expressed through the actions of genes – adaptive significance of behaviour is a key to understanding motivation Homeostasis and Drive Theory Homeostasis is a state of internal physiological equilibrium that the body strives to maintain ⋅ Maintaining homeostasis requires a sensory mechanism for detecting changes in the internal environment, a response system that can restore equilibrium, and a control centre that receives information from the sensors and activates the response system Drive Theory of motivation is physiological disruptions to homeostasis which produces drives, states of internal tension that motivate an orgasm to behave in ways the reduce tension ⋅ Drives such as hunger and thirst arise from tissue deficits and provide a source of energy that pushes an organism into action – reducing drives is the ultimate goal of motivated behaviour Incentive and Expectancy Theories Incentives represent environmental stimuli that “pull” an organism toward a goal ⋅ Incentive theories focus attention on external stimuli that motivate behaviour, though historically the concepts of incentives and drives were often linked ⋅ Clark Hull argued that all reinforcement involves some kind of biological drive reduction but this view is no longer held ⋅ Modern incentive theories emphasize the “pull” of external stimuli and how stimuli with high incentive value can motivate behaviour, even in the absence of biological need ⋅ Our cognitive approach called expectancy x value theory proposes that goal – directed behaviour is jointly determined by two factors: the strength of the person’s expectation that particular behaviours will lead to a goal and the value the individual places on that goal – often called incentive value  These two factors are multiplied, producing the following equation: motivation = expectancy x incentive value Extrinsic Motivation is performing an activity to obtain an external reward or avoid punishment Intrinsic Motivation is performing an activity for its own sake – because you find it enjoyable Psychodynamic and Humanistic Theories ⋅ According to Freud, much of our behaviour results from a never – ending battle between unconscious impulses struggling for release and psychological defences used to keep them under control ⋅ Abraham Maslow believed that psychology’s other perspectives ignored a key motive: our striving for personal growth  Distinguished between deficiency needs which are concerned with physical and social survival and growth needs, which are uniquely human and motivate us to develop our potential Need of Hierarchy is progression of needs containing deficiency needs at the bottom and growth needs at the top Self – Actualization represents the need to fulfill our potential, and it is the ultimate human motive Self – Determination Theory focuses on three fundamental psychological needs: competence, autonomy and relatedness ⋅ Competence motivation reflects a human need to master new challenges and perfect skills ⋅ Autonomy is satisfied when people experience their actions as a result of free choice without outside interference ⋅ Relatedness refers to our desire to form meaningful bonds with others Hunger and Weight Regulation The Physiology of Hunger Metabolism is the body’s rate of energy utilization, and about two – thirds of the energy we normally use goes to support basal metabolism, the resting, continuous metabolic work of body cells Signals That Start and Terminate a Meal ⋅ Hunger pangs do not depend on an empty stomach or any stomach at all ⋅ One key nutrient is glucose, a simply sugar that is the body’s major source of immediately usable food CCK is released into your bloodstream by the small intestine as food arrives from the stomach – travels to the brain and stimulates receptors in several regions that decrease eating Signals that Regulate General Appetite and Weight ⋅ Fat cells actively regulate food intake and weight by secreting leptin, a hormone that decreases appetite – as we gain fat, more leptin is secreted into the blood and reaches the brain, where receptor sites on certain neurons detect it Brain Mechanisms ⋅ Areas near the side, called the laterual hypothalamus seemed to be a “hunger on” centre ⋅ Structures in the middle area called the ventromedial hypothalamus seemed to be “hunger off” centre Paraventricular Nucleus is a cluster of neurons packed with receptor sites for various transmitters that stimulate or reduce appetite Psychological Aspects of Hunger ⋅ Eating is positively reinforced by the good taste of food and negatively reinforced by hunger reduction ⋅ We associate eating with pleasure therefore we are motivated to consume food ⋅ Conditioned habits lead us to eat even when we feel full ⋅ Food restrictions often stem from social pressures to conform to the ideal belief of how women should look Environmental and Cultural Factors ⋅ Food scarcity limits consumption which contrasts the idea that countries with abundance of food contribute to the high rates of obesity ⋅ Through classical conditioning, we learn to associate the smell and sight of food with its taste, and these food cues trigger hunger ⋅ Environmental stimuli affect the amount of food we intake Obesity ⋅ Body mass index between 25 and 29.9 is considered overweight, and a BMI over 30 is considered obese ⋅ Child obesity is growing at a rapid rate ⋅ Obesity is blamed as a result of lack of willpower, a weak character etc. Genes and Environment ⋅ Heredity plays a major role in weight gain ⋅ 200 genes have been identified as possible contributions to human obesity and in most cases it is the combined effects of a subset of genes that produce an increased risk ⋅ Environmental effects  abundance of inexpensive unhealthy food, cultural emphasis on “getting the best value” which leads to supersizing meals and technological advances that decrease the need for physical activity Sexual Motivation ⋅ Evolution has shaped our physiology so that sex feels good; periodically, this leads to child birth ⋅ Peer pressure is a major reason as to why adolescents indulge in sexual activity Sexual Behaviour: Patterns and Changes ⋅ Single adults who cohabit follow by married adults are the most sexually active ⋅ Men masturbate and fantasize about sex more often than women do ⋅ Men tend to have their first sexual experience one to two years earlier than women ⋅ Premarital intercourse has become more common The Physiology of Sex The Sexual Response Cycle ⋅ Four stages 1. Excitement Stage  Arousal builds rapidly  Blood flow increases to arteries in and around the genital organs, nipples and women’s breasts, calling these areas to swell  Penis and clitoris become erect  Vagina becomes lubricated  Muscle tension increases throughout the body 2. Plateau Phase  Respiration, heart rate, vasocongestion and muscle tension continue to build up until there is enough muscle tension to trigger an orgasm 3. Orgasm Phase  Male  Rhythmic contractions of internal organs and muscle tissue surrounding the urethra project semen put of the penis  Females  Orgasm involves rhythmic contractions of the outer third of the vagina, surrounding muscles and the uterus 4. Resolution Phase  Arousal decreases rapidly and the genital organs and tissues return to normal in men  Males encounter a refractory period during which they are temporarily incapable of another orgasm  Females may have two or more successive orgasms before the onset of the resolution pase Hormonal Influences ⋅ Hypothalamus plays a key role in sexual motivation ⋅ Controls pituitary gland which regulates the secretion of hormones called gonadotropins into the bloodstream ⋅ Sex hormones have organizational effects that direct the development of male and female sex characteristics ⋅ Sex hormones also have activational effects that stimulate sexual desire and behaviour  Begin at puberty when the individual’s gonads begin to secrete sex hormones The Psychology of Sex Sexual Fantasy ⋅ Fantasy illustrates how mental processes can affect physiological functioning ⋅ Sexual fantasies may trigger genital erection and orgasm in some people and are often used to enhanve arousal during masturbation Desire, Arousal, and Sexual Dysfunction ⋅ Psychological factors also inhibit sexual arousal ⋅ People desire sex but have difficulty becoming or staying aroused as a result of: stress, fatigue, and anger ⋅ Sexual dysfunction refers to chronic impaired sexual functioning that distresses a person Cultural and Environmental Influences Cultural Norms ⋅ Childhood sexuality is suppressed in our culture but is permitted and even encouraged in others ⋅ Ex. Marquesan parents may masturbate the child when baby boy is distressed ⋅ Boys and girls begin to masturbate between ages of 2-3 and most engage in casual homosexual contacts during their youth Sexual Orientation Sexual Orientation refers to one’s emotional and erotic preference for partners of a particular sex ⋅ Defining sexual orientation seems simple: homosexuality, heterosexuality and bisexuality ⋅ Not always so easy to define Prevalence of Different Sexual Orientations ⋅ Sexual orientation has three dimensions according to modern researchers Determinants of Sexual Orientation ⋅ Early biological theory suggested that homosexual and heterosexual males differ in their adult levels of sex hormones ⋅ Psychodynamic view proposed that male homosexuality develops when boys grow op with a weak, ineffectual father and identify with a seductive mother ⋅ Behaviourists suggested that homosexuality was a conditioned response, developed by associating adolescent sexual urges with the presence of same – sex peers ⋅ From a study, there was one notable pattern: even in childhood, homosexual men and women felt that they were somehow different from their same – sex peers and were more likely to engage in gender – nonconforming behaviours Achievement and Motivation Need for Achievement represents the desire to accomplish tasks and attain standards of excellence Motivation for Success: The Thrill of Victory 1. Positively oriented motive for success 2. Negatively orientated motivation to avoid failure, more commonly called fear of failure Fear of Failure: The Agony of Defeat ⋅ Fear of failure is usually measured by psychological tests that ask people to report how much anxiety they experience in achievement situations ⋅ People with high fear of failure show a pattern of achievement goals  Tend to adopt performance – approach goals in which it is important to outperform peers  Performance – Avoidance Goals Family and Cultural Influences ⋅ High need for achievement develops when parents encourage and reward achievement but do not punish failure ⋅ Fear if failure seems to develop when successful achievement is taken for granted by parents and failure is punished ⋅ Providing children with a supportive environment provides many opportunities for intrinsic motivation to perform academic tasks ⋅ Relation between cultural values and achievement motivation also is suggested by the correspondence between the amount of achievement imagery in children’s storybooks and measures of national accomplishment Motivational Conflict Approach – approach Conflict involves opposition between two attractive alternatives ⋅ Selecting one means losing the other ⋅ Conflict is at its greatest when both alternatives are equally attractive and important ⋅ Ex. Two desirable career paths Avoidance – Avoidance Conflict is when a person faces to undesirable alternatives ⋅ Ex. Do I spend my week studying boring material for exam or skip studying and fail Approach – Avoidance Conflict involves being attracted to and repelled by the same goal ⋅ Tendency to approach a desired foal and the desire to avoid it both grow stronger as we get nearer to the goal ⋅ Critical factor is that the avoidance tendency usually increases in strength faster than does the approach tendency Delay Discounting refers to the decrease in the value of the future incentive ⋅ Value of the future reward will change as the time one has to wait for it decreases; as we approach the availability of a reward, its incentive value increases The Nature and Functions of Emotion Emotions are positive or negative feelings consisting of a pattern of cognitive, physiological and behavioural reactions to events that have relevance to important goals or motives ⋅ Motivation and emotion both involve internal states of arousal and they both can trigger patterns of action ⋅ Emotion theorist believes that there is always a link between motives and emotions because we ract emotionally only when our motives and goals are gratified, threatened or frustrated The Adaptive Value of Emotion ⋅ Emotions signal that something important is happening and they direct our attention to that event ⋅ Fear or anger are part of an emergency arousal system that increases the chances of survival by energizing, directing and sustaining fighting or fleeing when confronted by threat or danger ⋅ Positive emotions (joy, happiness) help broaden our thinking and behaviour so that we explore and consider new ideas while trying out new ways to achieve goals ⋅ Emotions influence how other people behave toward us The Nature of Emotion ⋅ Emotions we have share four common features: 1. Emotions are responses to external or internal eliciting stimuli 2. Emotional responses from our interpretation or cognitive appraisal of these stimuli, which gives the situation its perceived meaning and significance 3. Our bodies respond physiologically to our appraisal 4. Emotions include behaviour tendencies – some are expressive behaviour (smiling or crying) and others are instrumental behaviours (running away) Eliciting Stimuli ⋅ Emotions are responses to situations, people, objects or events ⋅ The stimuli that trigger cognitive appraisal and emotional responses are not always external, they can be internal stimuli such as mental images and memories ⋅ Learning influences the ability of particular objects or people to arouse emotions The Cognitive Component Appraisal Processes ⋅ Both conscious and unconscious processes are involved in appraisals ⋅ Most strong emotions are triggered initially in this autonomic fashion after which we may appraise the situation in a more reasoning manner ⋅ The idea that emotional reactions are triggered by cognitive appraisals rather than external situations helps to account for the fact that different people can have very different emotional reactions to the same object, situation or person The Physiological Component Brain Structures and Neurotransmitters ⋅ Brains involvement in emotions is complex and many aspects are not well understood ⋅ Subcortical areas such as the hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus and other limbic system structures play major roles in emotion ⋅ Cerebral cortex has many connections with the hypothalamus and limbic system allowing constant communication between cortical and subcortical regions ⋅ Cognitive appraisal processes involves activities in the cortex where the mechanisms for language and complex thought reside The Behavioural Component Expressive Behaviours ⋅ We can normally attribute someone’s emotion to their expressive features ⋅ Ex. Frown indicates sadness, smile indicates happiness Evolution and Emotional Expression ⋅ Charles Darwin argued that emotional displays are products of evolution that developed because they contributed to species survival ⋅ Darwin emphasized the basic similarity of emotional expression in animals and human ⋅ Modern evolutionary theorists stress the adaptive value of emotional expression ⋅ Two key findings suggest that humans have fundamental emotional patterns 1. The expressions of certain emotions (rage, terror) are similar across a variety of cultures, suggesting that certain expressive behaviour patterns are wired into the nervous system 2. Children who are blind from birth seem to express these basic emotions in the same ways that sighted children do, ruling out the possibility that they are learned solely through observation Facial Expression of Emotion ⋅ Women have proven to be more accurate at judging someone’s emotions than men cross culturally ⋅ People are taught to convey emotions in different manners Cultural Display Rules Display Rules are norms for emotional expression within a given culture ⋅ Gestures, body postures and physical movements can convey different meanings depending on the culture Theories of Emotion The James – Lange Somatic Theory ⋅ Body informs mind; our physiological reactions determine our emotions ⋅ Ex. We know we are afraid or in love because our bodily reactions tell us too The Cannon – Bard Theory ⋅ People’s bodies do not respond instantaneously to an emotional stimulus ⋅ Proposes that when we encounter an emotion – arousing situation, the thalamus simultaneously sends sensory messages to the cerebral cortex and to the body’s internal organs ⋅ The message to the cortex produces the experience of emotion and the one to the internal organs produces the physiological arousal The Role of Autonomic Feedback ⋅ According to the James – Lange theory, feedback from the body’s reactions to eliciting stimuli tells the brain that we are experiencing an emotion – without such feedback, there would be no emotional response ⋅ Cannon – Bard theory maintains that experiencing emotion results from signals sent from the thalamus to the cortex, not from bodily feedback The Facial Feedback Hypothesis Facial Feedback Hypothesis maintains that this feedback to the brain might play a key role in determining the nature and intensity of emotion that we experience Cognitive – Affective Theories ⋅ Focus on the ways in which cognitions and physiological responses interact ⋅ Lazarus emphasizes the link between cognitive appraisal and arousal, and argues that all emotional responses require some sort of appraisal, whether we are aware of that appraisal or not ⋅ The two – factor theory of emotion states that arousal and cognitive labelling based on situational cues are the critical ingredients in emotional experience Pg 491 Chapter 12 – Development over the Lifespan Developmental Psychology: Issues and Methods ⋅ Developmental psychology focuses on four broad issues: 1. Nature and Nurture 2. Critical and sensitive periods –  Critical period is an age range in which certain experiences must occur for development to proceed normally or along a certain path  Sensitive period is an optimal age range for certain experiences but if those experiences occur at another time, normally development will still be possible 3. Continuity versus discontinuity  Is development continuous and gradual or is it discontinuous 4. Stability versus change  Do characteristics stay constant as we age? ⋅ Developmental psychologists address these issues by describing developmental functions 1. No change – an ability present or at birth that remains relatively constant across the lifespan 2. Continuous change – an ability not present or very immature, at birth that develops gradually over months 3. Stages (discontinuity) – an ability that progresses in stages, with relative rapid shifts from a lower level of performance to a higher level 4. Inverted U shaped function – an ability that emerges after birth, peaks and disappears with age 5. U – shaped function – an ability that is present in early life, disappears temporarily and reemerges later ⋅ Using cross – sectional design, allows researchers to compare things Longitudinal design repeatedly tests the same cohort as it grows older Sequential Design combines the cross – sectional and longitudinal approaches – we can repeatedly test several cohorts Prenatal Development ⋅ Consists of three stages of physical growth 1. Germinal Stage – the first two weeks of development, beginning when one sperm fertilizes a female egg (ovum) – this fertilized egg is called a zygote in which repeated cell division causes the zygote to become a mass of cells that attaches to the mother’s uterus 10 – 14 days after conception 2. Embryonic Stage – extends from the end of the second week through the eighth week after conception and the cell mass is now called an embryo  Two life support structures, the placenta and the umbilical cord, develop at the start of this stage  Located on the uterine wall, the placenta contains membranes that allow nutrients to pass from the mother’s blood to the umbilical cord and in turn, the umbilical cord contains blood vessels that carry these nutrients and oxygen to the embryo  Bodily organs and systems begin to form and by week eight, the heart of the embryo is beating, the brain is forming and the facial features (eyes) can be recognized 3. Fetal Stage – lasts until birth and the muscles become stronger and other bodily systems continue to develop  At the ninth week of conception, the embryo is called a fetus  At about 24 weeks the eyes open and by 28 weeks, the fetus attains the age where it can survive outside the womb Genetics and Sex Determination ⋅ At conception, an egg and sperm unite to form the zygote, which now contains the full set of 23 pairs of chromosords ⋅ The 23 pair of chromosomes determines the baby’s sex ⋅ A genetic female’s 23 chromosome pairs contain two X chromosomes (XX)  Because only women carry X chromosomes, the chromosome in the egg is always an X rd ⋅ A genetic males 23 chromosome pairs contain one X and one Y (XY)  The Y chromosome contains a specific gen
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 1000

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.