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Chapter 11

Chapter 11- Motivation & Emotion

10 Pages

Course Code
Psychology 1000
Shauna Burke

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Chapter 11: Motivation & Emotion 1 Introduction: • motivation: process that influences the direction, persistence, and vigor of goal-directed behaviour Instinct Theory & Evolutionary Psychology: • instinct: inherited predisposition to behave in specific & predictable way when exposed to a particular stimulus • William James: 2 dozen instincts; today: thousands • “psychological” motives have evolutionary underpinnings- expressed through actions of genes Homeostasis & Drive Theory: • Water Cannon: homeostasis- state of internal physiological equilibrium that the body strives to maintain - > sensory mechanism for detecting changes in internal environment; response system can restore equilibrium; control centre receives information from sensors & activates response system - > set point: sensors detect significant temp changes in either direction • Clark Hull: drive theory: physiological disruptions to homeostasis produce drives, states of internal tension that motive an organism to behave in ways that reduce tension - > ex. hunger, thirst, body temperature, weight, sleep Incentive & Expectancy Theories: • incentive: environmental stimuli that “pull” an organism toward a goal; ex. good grade - > ex. study of drug abuse- heroin makes addict feel good, not b/c of biological drive • expectancy x value theory: goal-directed behaviour is jointly determined by 2 factors: - > strength of person’s expectations that particular behaviours will lead to goal - > value of individual places on that goal extrinsic motivation: performing activity to obtain external reward or avoid punishment • • intrinsic motivation: performing activity for own sake Chapter 11: Motivation & Emotion 2 • over-justification hypothesis: giving people extrinsic rewards to perform activities that they intrinsically enjoy may “over-justify” that behaviour & reduce intrinsic motivation Psychodynamic & Humanistic Theories: • Freud: never ending battle b/w unconscious impulses struggling for release & psychological defenses used to keep them under control; esp. sex & aggression Maslow: deficiency needs: physical & social survival; growth needs: motivate us to develop • our potential - > need hierarchy: progression of needs (deficiency - > growth) - > self-actualization: need to fulfill potential Edward Deci & Richard Ryan: self-determination theory: • - > competence: human needs to master new challenges & perfect skills - > autonomy: people experience actions as result of free choice w/o side interference - > relatedness: desire to form meaningful bonds w/ others Hunger & Weight Regulation: • metabolism: body’s rate of energy (or caloric) utilization - > basal metabolism: resting, continuous metabolic work of body cells - > short term signals: start meals by producing hunger & stop food intake by producing satiety - > long term signals: adjust appetite & metabolism to compensate for times when you overeat or eat too little in short term - > set point: if we overeat or eat too little, homeostatic mechanisms will return us close to our original weight • hunger pang: muscular contractions by empty stomach? no • Washburn: ingested balloon- contractions corresponded to subjective feeling of hunger • glucose: simple sugar - > blood glucose levels decrease, liver responds by converting stored nutrients back into glucose (drop-rise glucose pattern) • stomach & intestinal distention: “satiety signals” • patients who have stomachs removed, continue to experience satiety, b/c of chemical signals Chapter 11: Motivation & Emotion 3 • release hormones, peptides- help to terminate meal • CCK: released into bloodstream by small intestine as food arrives from stomach • leptin: hormone that decreases appetite - > gain fat: more leptin secreted into blood, reaches brain, ^ energy expenditure, curb appetite - > ex. obese mice: ob gene- no leptin, kept eating, got obese ; injected w/ leptin injections lateral hypothalamus (LH): “hunger on” centre • • ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH): “hunger off” centre - > scientifically, not true • paraventricular nucleus (PVN): cluster of neurons packed w/ receptor sites for various transmitters that stimulate or reduce appetite - > neuropeptide Y: appetite stimulant - > leptin reaches hypothalamus, inhibit activity of neurons that release neuropeptide Y into PVN, appetite reduced • social pressures to conform to cultural standards of beauty • April Fallon & Paul Rozin: men- figures as ideal; women- lose weight • leads to eating restrictions & eating disorders • 1/5 adolescent/young adult females report being unhappy w/ weight, even when in normal, healthy range Environmental & Cultural Factors: • portion size, number of people present during meal, amount that others eat, variety of foods available good availability: poverty • • food taste & variety: can become tired of “eating the same thing” • classical conditioning: associate smell & sight of food w/ taste - > food cues trigger hunger Obesity: • BMI: 2-29.9=overweight, 30+=obese Chapter 11: Motivation & Emotion 4 • 23% of adult Canadians are obese, 59% overweight or obese • children: 20% overweight, 8% obese • hypothesis: cope w/ stress, react more strongly to food cues • heredity: influences basal metabolic rate & tendency to store energy as either fat or lean tissue; 40-70% • identical twins reared apart are about as similar in body mass as identical twins reared together • adopted children resemble biological parents more closely than adoptive parents • Causes: - > abundance of inexpensive, tasty, high-fat foods available - > cultural emphasis on “getting best value” - > super-sizing - > technological advances decrease need for physical activity, encourage sedentary lifestyle - > high levels of dopamine in brain’s “reward pathway” being fat primes people to stay fat, altering body chemistry & energy expenditure • • higher levels of insulin (released by pancreas), increase conversion of glucose - > fat • harder to exercise vigorously, dieting slows basal metabolism Sexual Motivation: study: adolescents have sex b/c of peer pressure over sexual gratification • • 1920s (Helena Wright): most women have sex b/c of marital duty • many women say 1st sexual experience is disappointing • 10% of men & 20% women say sex is not pleasurable • Alfred Kinsey- 1st sex survey (1930s): 18-59 - > 70% have sex w/ partner few times/month • 25% men & 10% women masturbate 1+ times/week • 60% men & 40% women masturbate at least once a year males have sexual intercourse 1-2 years earlier than females • • premarital sex: changing social norms, trend toward sexual activity at younger age, tendency to delay marriage Physiology of Sex: • Masters & Johnson: camera in penis-shaped case - > film vaginal reactions during simulated intercourse Chapter 11: Motivation & Emotion 5 • 4 stage sexual response cycle: 1.excitement: arousal builds rapidly; blood flow increases in arteries, around genital organs, nipples, breasts - > pooling causing swelling (vasocongestion) 2.plateau: respiration, heart rate, vasocongestion, muscle tension build 3.orgasm: males- contractions of internal organs & muscle tissue, semen 4.resolution: arousal decreases rapidly & genital organs to normal state Hormonal Influences: • hypothalamus: controls pituitary gland - > regulates secretion of hormones (gonadotrapins); effect gonads activational effect: stimulate sexual desire/behaviour • • female: estrus cycle- sexually receptive only during periods of high estrogen secretion • androgens, rather than estrogen, influence sexual desire • women who remove androgen-producing organs & men who remove testes=lose desire Psychology of Sex: • fantasy: 18-59- half of men & 1/5 of women at least once/day • during sexual intercourse, enhance arousal during masturbation • sexual dysfunction: chronic, impaired sexual functioning - > injuries, diseases, drug effects, psychological, consequence of sexual assault/childhood sexual abuse Cultural & Environmental Influences: • some religions discourage/prohibit premarital sex, extramarital sex, public dress • stimuli: watching partner undress, vaginal intercourse, erotic portrayals • Julia Heiman: university students- women & men experienced sexual arousal w/ descriptions of explicit sex, not romantic conversations • 39% wom
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