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Chapter 12

Chapter 12- Development Over The Lifespan

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Western University
Psychology 1000
Shauna Burke

Chapter 12: Development Over The Lifespan 1 Developmental Psychology: Issues & Methods Research: 1. Nature & Nurture: heredity vs environment 2.Critical period: age range in which certain experiences must occur for development to proceed normally; Sensitive period: optimal age range for certain experiences, if at other time, development still occurs 3. Continuity vs Discontinuity 4. Stability vs Change Developmental Functions: A) No change: ability present at/before birth that remains constant across lifespan; ex. discriminate b/w high & low pitch sound B) Continuous change: ability not present/very immature at birth, develops over months/years & remains constant over age; ex. intelligence C) Stages (discontinuity): rapid shifts from lower level to higher level of performance; ex. motor & cognitive development D) Inverted U: emerges after birth, peaks, disappears with age; ex. separation anxiety E) U Shaped: present early in life, disappears temporarily, remerges; ex. newborns turning toward off centered sound Designs: •Cross-sectional: compare people of different ages at same point in time; drawback: cohort- different age groups grew up in different historical periods •Longitudinal: repeatedly tests same cohort as it grows older; drawbacks: moving, dropping out of study, death •Sequential: combines cross-sectional & longitudinal; test several cohorts as they grow older & determine if they follow similar developmental patterns Prenatal Development: 1.Germinal: first 2 weeks, beginning when 1 sperm fertilizes female egg (zygote) - > mass of cells, attaches to mother’s uterus 2.Embryonic: end of second week to eighth (embryo); placenta & umbilical cord develop; bodily organs/systems begin to form Chapter 12: Development Over The Lifespan 2 3.Fetal: ninth week to birth (fetus); age of viability- 28 weeks (likely to survive outside womb- premature birth) • sex determining gene: 23rd; female- XX, male- XY • TDF (testis determining factor): triggers male development • teratogen: environmental agents that cause abnormal prenatal development - > rubella: blindness, deafness, heart defects, mental retardation - > HIV: 25% infected - > Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS): intellectual (IQ), fine-and-gross motor impairments, poor adaptive functioning - > nicotine: miscarriage, premature birth, low birth weight; also, ETS from fathers - > heroin/cocaine: experience withdrawal after birth • Kisilevsky & Muir: loud sound=increases in fetal heart rate & body movements, 3rd trimester - > stop responding to repeated presentations of vibro-acoustic & auditory stimuli (ST memory) - > sounds heard repeatedly during fetal development (LT memory) Infancy & Childhood: • preferential looking procedure: study visual preferences; complex (preferred) vs solid colours • poor visual acuity- 20/800 (or 40x worse than adults) • readily turn off centered auditory (rattles) & tactile (touching cheek) targets • visual habituation procedure: same stimulus is presented repeatedly until infant looking time declines (usually by 50%) • Adams & Courage: colour vision • Zelazo: auditory habituation procedure: infant memory; problems w/ Down-syndrome, premature & cocaine babies • Morrongiello: learn to associate particular sounds w/ particular objects Blass, Ganchow, Steiner: operant & classical conditioning; fake nipple, milk, touch on head • • Meltzoff & Moore: imitate adult facial expressions; ex. smiling - > social exchange, recognition • visual field: almost adult size at 6 months; grating acuity: 20/800 (birth) - > 20/100 (6 months) • Gestalt principles: 3-4 months Chapter 12: Development Over The Lifespan 3 • U-shaped: sound localization- turn towards sounds at birth, disappears in 2nd month, reappears at 4-5 months Werker: 6 month olds turn head to receive visual reward when hear one repeated phoneme & • change to another • Trainor: infants perceive music as adults do • maturation: genetically programmed biological processes that govern growth, bodies & movement cephalocaudal principle: development to proceed in head-to-foot direction; head of fetus is • large vs rest of body • proximodistal principle: development begins along innermost to outermost parts of body • Brain: - > birth: 25% of eventual adult weight - > 6 months: 50% - > first areas: basic survival functions (heartbeat, breathing); last areas: prefrontal cortex= highest-level cognitive function - > 5 years: 90% • Motor: - > reflexes: automatic, inborn behaviours elicited by specific stimuli-present at birth - > ex. breathing: adaptive value - > regulate ability to feed - > U shaped: newborn stepping reflex- drops out 1-2 months, reappears at 12 months (walk) • environmental: diet, opportunity to interact, manipulate suitable toys, physical touch • U-shaped: Zelazo- long term practice=infants walked 2 months earlier than controls Cognitive: • Piaget: observational research; brain builds schemas; ex. sucking reflex • assimilation: new experiences are incorporated into existing schemas; ex. horse, says ‘big doggie’ • accommodation: process by which new experiences cause existing schemas cause existing schemas to change; ex. realizes it’s not a dog (no barking, sitting) - > “horsey” Chapter 12: Development Over The Lifespan 4 Stage Age (years) Major Characteristics Sensorimotor birth-2 world through sensory & • motor experiences •object permanence: understanding that object continues to exist even when no longer seen •emergence of symbolic thought Pre-operational 2-7 •use words/images to represent objects & experiences; pretend play centration: focus on one • aspect of situation •egocentrism: difficult viewing world from others’ perspectives Concrete Operational 7-12 •think logically about concrete events; not abstract •conservation: basic properties of objects stay the same even though outward appearance may change •serial ordering Formal Operational 12- •think logically, abstractly, flexibly •form hypotheses & test • universality principle: but, culture influences cognitive development • violation-of-expectation principle: examine infants’understanding of basic concepts - > Baillargeon: 4 months=treat inanimate, self-propelled objects as though they were alive - > Wynn: 5 months=subtract or add small numbers of objects • young children make fewer conservation errors & show less egocentric behaviour when tested on tasks that are more familiar to them or depend less on language • child may perform at pre-operational level on some tasks & concrete operational at another, etc. Chapter 12: Development Over The Lifespan 5 • Vygotsky: sociocultural context interacts w/ biological maturation; zone of proximal development: diff b/w what a child can do independently & what a child can do w/ assistance from adults or advanced peers • Vurpillot: older children are better able to search systematically for relevant info; ex. 2 houses • increased attention span, ability to inhibit impulsive responses to distracting stimuli • preschoolers- easily solve task using shape/colour, failed when asked to switch rules • working memory improves • older children: retain/manipulate visiospatial info, strategies to improve memory, rehearsal - > short to long term memory • continuity vs discontinuity: gradual development vs emergence of distinct stages • theory of mind: person’s beliefs about the mind & ability to understand other people’s mental states; ex. 6 years- pass standard false belief tasks - > lying & deception: early as 3 years; elaborate on lies=becomes more detectable - > 9 months: joint visual attention; 12 months: follow adult eye-gaze direction alone - >Baldwin: 1.5-2 years: attach novel word to novel object only if adult looks in direction of object; 4+ years: attach object to word only if adult appears, not uncertain Social-Emotional & Personality Development: • personality: distinctive, yet somewhat consistent pattern of thinking, feeling & behaving • facial expressions, vocalizations, etc. • 18 months: develop a sense of self • 2 years: display pride, shame, guilt (avoiding eye contact, shrugging shoulders) • emotional regulation: evaluate & modify emotional reactions • parents, teachers, peers=models for some types of emotional responses, but not others • temperament: biologically based general style of reacting emotionally & behaviorally to environment - > Chase: parents described babies as 1. easy, 2. difficult, 3. slow-to-warmup - > shyness- behavioural inhibition - > Kegan: 20-25% infants display inhibited pattern, remained stable through infancy Chapter 12: Development Over The Lifespan 6 - > highly uninhibited=become sociable, talkative; highly inhibited=developed into quiet, cautious, shy - > Newman: 3 years vs 21 years- inhibited=less adult relationships; under-controlled=antisocial - > Schmidt: cheek swab- dopamine receptor gene (DRD4): attention deficits Erikson’s Psychosocial Steps: Age (years) Major Psychological Crisis First year Basic trust vs mistrust: how adequately needs are met, love, attention 1-2 Autonomy vs shame vs doubt: exercise individuality 3-5 Initiative vs guilt: curiosity 6-12 Industry (pride & encouragement in mastering tasks) vs inferiority (repeated failure & lack of praise for trying) 12-20 Identity vs role confusion 20-40 Intimacy vs isolation 40-65 Generatively vs stagnation 65+ Integrity vs despair •imprinting:
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