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Chapter 8

Chapter 8: Memory

10 Pages

Course Code
Psychology 1000
Shauna Burke

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Chapter 8: 1 • Memory: processes that allow us to record & retrieve experiences/information • Hermann Ebbinghaus (1885): rate of which info. is forgotten • Francis Dalton (1883): memory for personal events • Encoding: getting info into system by translating it into neural code that brain processes; ex. keyboard keys - > words • Storage: retaining info over time & storing • Retrieval: use info; ex. “Open file” Three Component Model • Fig. 8.2 1. Sensory Memory: • holds incoming sensory info just long enough for it to be recognized • sensory registers: initial info processor • iconic store: stores info; George Sperling (1960) experiment echoic store: auditory sensory register; 2 sec • 2. Short Term/Working Memory: • holds info that we are conscious of at any given time; also working memory- consciously processes codes • Memory Codes: mental image (visual encoding); sound (phonological); meaning of stimulus (semantic); physical (motor) • Capacity & Duration: chunking- combining individual items into larger units of meaning - George Miller (1956): 7 items + or - 2 at same time - Lloyd & Margaret Peterson (1959): - maintenance rehearsal: repeating something over - elaborate rehearsal: focusing on meaning of info or relating it to other things we already know • Putting Short Term Memory to “Work” - working memory: actively & simultaneously processes different types of info, supports cognitive functions (i.e. problem solving, planning), interacts w/ long term memory Chapter 8: 2 - Alan Baddeley (1998): 1. auditory; 2. spatial- temporarily store & manipulate images; 3. episodic buffer- info is integrated, manipulated & made available for conscious awareness; 4. central executive- directs action, how much attention allocated to mental imagery & auditory rehearsal, calls up info from long term memory, integrates input 3. Long Term Memory: • more durable stored memories serial position effect: recall is influenced by word’s position in series of items; primary effect- • first words (long term), recency effect- last words (short term) Effortful &Automatic Processing: effortful: encoding is initiated intentionally & requires conscious attention; ex. studying • • automatic: encoding occurs without intention & requires minimal attention; ex. reading, remembering yesterday’s events Levels of Processing: When Deeper is Better: • structural: notice how word looks; ex. POTATO • phonological: saying word out loud & matching it to other word; ex. horse & course • semantic: what word means; ex. “this man peeled the...” potato, not table • levels of processing (Fergus Craik & Robert Lockhart, 1972, 2008): more deeply we process info the better it will be remembered; semantic (deepest), phonetic (deeper), structural (shallow) Exposure & Rehearsal: • exposure: seeing something rehearsal: thinking about info; maintenance rehearsal- simple repetition; elaborate rehearsal- • meaning of words (more effective for long term memory) Organization & Imagery: (K.Anders Ericsson & Peter Polson, 1988): cue to help trigger memory; ex. TOBO (acronym) • Hierarchies & Chunking: Chapter 8: 3 • (Gordon Bower, 1969): hierarchy=enhances understanding of how diverse elements are related, process from top to bottom, cue to trigger memory for associated items chunking: combining individual items into larger unit of meaning; ex. phone number=3 chunks • of #’s (905-430-5147) Mnemonic Devices: • memory aid: hierarchies, chunking, acronyms- do not reduce amount of raw info; ex. HOMES- have to know great lakes, not just acronym Visual imagery: • (Allan Paivio (1969, 2006): verbal codes & non-verbal (visual) - dual coding theory: using both codes=enhances memory - visual: firetruck (concrete) vs jealousy (abstract); abstract=easier to encode semantically than visually - method of loci: form images that link items to places Schemas: Our Mental Organizers • schema: organized pattern of thought about some aspect of the world; ex. people, events Schemas, Encoding & Expertise: • expert knowledge: process of developing schemas-mental frameworks-that help to encode info. into meaningful patterns • (William Chase & Herbert Simon, 1973): expert vs intermediate vs novice chess player - chess piece positions- look for 5 seconds - expertise did help when presented w/ meaningful positions (real game) but not when randomized (no particular pattern)- used schemas & chunking Associative Networks: • network of associated ideas & concepts • (Alan Collins, Elizabeth Loftus, 1975): spreading activation of related concepts through network • priming: activation of one concept by another; ex. fire engine - > red Chapter 8: 4 Neural Networks: • nodes linked to one another; physical in nature, do not contain individual units of info • each concept is represented by particular pattern (set of nodes) that becomes activated simultaneously • parallel distributed processing models (PDP)- models Declarative & Procedural Memory: • declarative: factual knowledge; declared- tell people that we know - episodic: concerning physical experiences; ex. when, where, why - semantic: concerning world & language (words, concepts) • procedural: reflected in skills & actions; ex. riding bike, playing instrument - classically conditioned responses Explicit & Implicit Memory: • explicit: conscious/intentional memory retrieval - recognition: decide whether stimulus is familiar; ex. multiple choice test - recall: spontaneous memory retrieval; ex. list of words - cued recall: cues given to stimulate recall; ex. word rhymes w/ hat - > bat? • implicit: memory influences behaviour without conscious awareness - priming task: moon..see M_N - > think back to word Retrieval:Accessing Information • retrieval cue: any stimulus, internal or external, stimulates activation of information stored in long term memory Value of Multiple & Self-Generated Cues: • (Timo Mantyla, 1986): benefit of multiple self-generated retrievals to recall; ex. banana - > fruit, peel, monkey Chapter 8: 5 Value of Distinctiveness: • distinctive stimuli remembered more than non-distinctive stimuli - ex. words: robin, eagle, nest, tomato, chirp, hawk; tomato=distinct Flashbulb Memory: Fogging up the Picture? • recollections that seem so vivid; picture them as if they were a snapshot of moment in time - occur: distinctive, positive, negative events that evoke strong emotional reactions - (Ulric Neisser, Nicole Harsch, 1980): blow up of space shuttle, O.J. Simpson trial- students who were more emotionally involved remembered more correct details years later - (Kathy Pezek, 2002): memory questionnaire; Did you see Princess Diana car crash video? no video exists, but participants still said ‘yes’and were as confident as those who said ‘no’ • confidence & accuracy=weakly related Context, State & Mood Effects on Memory encoding specificity principle: memory is enhanced when conditions present during retrieval • match those that were present during encoding; stimuli associated w/ event may become encoded, become part of memory & later serve as retrieval cues Context Dependent Memory: Returning to the Scene • typically easier to remember something in same environment in which it was acquired; ex. going back to old neighborhood- certain sights & sounds may trigger memories - (Duncan Godden, Alan Baddeley, 1975): take exam in quiet room - > study in quiet environment State Dependent Mem
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