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Chapter 8

Chapter 8 Notes

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Psychology 1000

CHAPTER 8: MEMORY - memory refers t the processes that allow us to record and later retrieve experiences and information > MEMORY AS INFORMATION PROCESSING - the mind is a processing system that encodes, stores, and retrieves info - encoding: getting info into the system by translating into a neural code that your brain processes - storage: involves retaining information over time - retrieval: pulling information out of storage when we want to use it A Three-Component Model - Atkinson and Shiffrin model memory has 3 major components: sensory memory, short term or working memory, and long-term memory Sensory Memory: - holds incoming sensory information just long enough for it to be recognized - composed of different subsystems: o sensory registers: the initial information processors o iconic store: our visual sensory register o echoic store: the auditory sensory register - it is difficult or impossible to retain complete information in purely visual form for more than a fraction of a second - echoic memory lasts longer than iconic memory (about 2 seconds) Short-Term/Working Memory: - holds the info we are conscious of at any given time consciously processes, codes, and works on information Mental Representations - once info leaves sensory memory, it must be represented by some type of code if it is to be retained in short-term and eventually long-term memory - We may try to form a mental image (visual encoding), code something by sound (phonologic encoding), or focus on the meaning of a stimulus (semantic encoding). For physical actions we code patterns of movement (motor encoding) Capacity and Duration: - depending upon the stimulus, such as numbers, letters, or words, most people can hold no more than 5-9 meaningful items in short-term memory (7, plus/minus 2) - chunking: combining individual items to form larger units of meaning - limited in duration as well as capacity around 20 seconds - maintenance rehearsal: the simple repetition of information - elaborative rehearsal: involves focusing on the meaning of information or relating it to other things we already know more effective in transferring info into long-term memory 1 Putting short-term memory to work: - cognitive scientists see short-term memory as a mental workplace that actively and simultaneously process different types of info - Baddeley divided working memory into 3 components: o Auditory working memory (the phonological loop) repeating a name, number to yourself o Visual-spatial working memory (the visuo-spatial sketchpad) allows us to temporarily store and manipulate images and spatial info o Central executive decides how much attention to allocate to mental imagery and auditory rehearsal, calls up info from long-term, and integrates the input occurs in prefrontal cortex Long-Term Memory - our vast library of already stored memories - can form new memories until we die unlimited room for more - serial position effect: recall is influenced by a words position in a series of items. The serial position effect has two components: o primacy effect: easier to recall early words in the list when the first few words are seen, there is time for rehearsal, but as more words come short- term memory fills up o recency effect: easier to recall the most recent words havent been bumped out of short term memory yet > ENCODING: ENTERING INFORMATION Effortful and Automatic Processing - effortful processing is encoding that is initiated intentionally and requires conscious attention - automatic processing is encoding that occurs without intention and requires minimal attention frequency, spatial location, sequence, and timing of events Levels of Processing - structural encoding what something looks like - phonological encoding what something sounds like - semantic encoding what something means - Craik levels of processing concept the more deeply we process info, the better it will be remembered semantic encoding deepest, structural shallowest Exposure and Rehearsal - to learn factual and conceptual information we need to employ effortful, deep processing - simple repeated exposure to a stimulus without stopping to think about it is shallow processing - elaborative rehearsal focuses on the meaning of info, thus is much more effective in transferring to long-term memory, as opposed to maintenance rehearsal 2Organization and Imagery Hierarchies and Chunking - logical hierarchy enhances our understand of how diverse elements are related, and also makes it easier to use imagery as a cue - chunking refers to combining individual items into a larger unit of meaning Mnemonic Devices - mnemonics the art of improving memory - a mnemonic device is any type of memory aid (hierarchies, chunking, acronyms) - do not reduce amount of info, but reorganize info into more meaningful units and provide extra cues that help retrieve info from long-term memory Visual Imagery - Paivio said info is stored in long-term memory either in verbal codes or nonverbal (usually visual) codes - Dual coding theory: encoding information using both codes enhances memory, because the odds improve that at least one of the codes will be available later to support recall - easier to encode abstract concepts semantically rather than visually - ancient Greek method method of loci linking a location with distinct landmarks to a list
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