Textbook Notes (362,820)
Canada (158,064)
Psychology (4,729)
Psychology 1000 (1,558)
Dr.Mike (659)
Chapter 13

Chapter 13 Notes

11 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Psychology 1000

CHAPTER 13: PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS 22% of ppl have a diagnosable mental disorder > HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES The Demonological View: The Chinese, Egyptian and Hebrews attributed deviance to the work of the devil Ancient treatment based on notion that bizarre behaviour reflected an evil spirits attempt to escape the human body Trephination: a sharp tool was used to chisel a hole in the skull in order to release spirits Medieval Europe Religious Dogma held that disturbed ppl were either possessed or had voluntarily made a pact with evil, such as witches Early Biological View: th 5 century BC: Hippocrates suggested mental illness is the same as physical disorders People with disordered behaviour were sick not possessed by evil Site of mental illness is the brain general paresis: mental deterioration and bizarre behaviour caused by syphilis first demonstration that a psychological disorder was linked to a physical sickness Psychological Perspectives: Psychodynamic Freud: convinced that psychological disorders are caused by unresolved conflicts from childhood that make the person vulnerable The inappropriate or extreme use of defense mechanisms such as repression result in maladaptive patterns of behaviour Neuroses: (obsessions, phobias, depression ) no loss of contact with reality Psychoses: when an unresolved conflict is so great that they withdraw from reality (schizophrenia) Behavioural Disordered behaviours are learned responses that are learned through classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and modeling Think about how environmental factors influence abnormal behaviour Cognitive Emphasizes the important role of peoples thoughts and perceptions about themselves and the environment Aaron Beck identified maladaptive and self-defeating thought patterns are linked to a number of different disorders like depression and anxiety Key to understanding may disorders is to isolate specific thought patterns and attitudes that underlie them Humanistic Views abnormality as the result of environmental forces that frustrate or pervert peoples self-actualization tendencies and their search for meaning in life If experience becomes incongruent with the self-concept that it arouses severe threat, a breakdown may occur Vulnerability-stress Model Vulnerability-stress model: Everyone has some degree of vulnerability to developing a given psychological disorder Vulnerability: predisposition can be biologically based (brain/hormones), personality based (low self-esteem, pessimism, etc), or environmentally based (poverty, trauma) Stressor: some recent or current event that requires a person to cope both factors are combined to trigger the appearance of a disorder > DEFINING AND CLASSIFYING PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS What is Abnormal? Abnormality: a social construction affected by value judgments and political agenda Drapetomania: an obsessive desire for freedom that drove slaves to try more than twice to escape Self-defeating/ masochistic personality disorder: people who continually involve themselves in hurtful circumstances and relationships Criteria that determine decisions about abnormality: three Ds o Distress to self or others o Dysfunctional for the individual or society o Deviance towards social norms Abnormal behaviour: behaviour that is personally distressful, personally dysfunctional, and/or so culturally deviant that other ppl judge it to be inappropriate or maladaptive Diagnosing Psychological Disorders classification systems have to meet standards of reliability and validity o reliability: clinicians using the system should show high levels of agreement in their diagnostic decisions o validity: diagnostic categories should accurately capture the essential features of the various disorders, and differentiate between them Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) most widely used diagnostic classification system in North America has more than 350 diagnostic categories diagnostic information represented on five dimensions or axes that take the person and his or her life situation into account o Axis I: primary clinical symptoms o Axis II: long-standing personality or developmental disorders o Axis III: any relevant physical conditions (high blood-pressure) o Axis IV: intensity of environmental stressors in the persons recent life o Axis V: persons coping resources reflected in recent adaptive functioning Critical Issues in Diagnostic Labeling Social and Personal Implications once a diagnostic label is attached to a person it becomes very easy to accept the label as an accurate description of the individual rather than the behaviour affects how we interact with a person expectations that accompany a label may result in a self-fulfilling prophecy in which expectations of a disorder become a reality Legal Consequences law tries to take into account the mental status of individuals accused of crimes, based on: Competency: refers to a defendants state of mind at the time of a judicial hearing. If judged to be too disturbed to understand the nature of the legal proceeding then they cannot stand trial Insanity: a far more controversial issue, relates to the presumed state of mind of the defendant at the time of the crime may be declared not guilty by reason of insanity if they are judged t have been so severely impaired during the commission of a crime that they lacked the capacity to understand what they did > ANXIETY DISORDERS Anxiety disorders: when the frequency and intensity of anxiety responses are out of proportion to the situations that trigger them and interferes with everyday life four components of anxiety response: 1. subjective-emotional: including feeling of tension and apprehension 2. cognitive component: including subjective feelings of apprehension a sense of impending danger, and inability to cope 3. physiological responses: increased heart rate and bloo
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 1000

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.