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Chapter 16

Chapter 16 Notes

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Psychology 1000

CHAPTER 16: BEHAVIOUR IN A SOCIAL CONTEXT > SOCIAL THINKING AND PERCEPTION Attribution - Attribution: judgments about the causes of our own and other people’s behaviour and outcomes Personal vs. Situational Attribution - personal (internal) attributions: people’s behaviour is caused by their characteristics - situational (external) attribution: aspects of the situation cause a behaviour - Kelley  3 types of information to determine the attribution type: o consistency, distinctiveness, consensus - when all are high we tend to make a situational attribution - when consistency is high, and the others are low we tend to make a personal attribution Attributional Biases - Fundamental attribution error: underestimating the impact of the situation and overestimating the role of personal factors when explaining other peoples behaviours - Self-serving bias: making relatively more personal attributions for successes and more situational attribution for failures Forming and Maintaining Impressions Primacy vs. Recency - Primacy effect: refers to our tendency to attach more importance to the initial information that we learn about a person o we tend to be most alert to info we first receive, and initial info may shape how we perceive later info - Recency effects: may occur when we are asked to avoid making snap judgments and carefully consider the evidence Mental sets and schemas - Stereotype: generalized belief about a group or category of people - Self-fulfilling prophecies: when people’s erroneous expectations lead them to act toward others in a way that brings about the expected behaviours, confirming original impression Attitudes - Attitudes: positive or negative evaluative reaction toward a stimulus (person, action, object, etc.) Do Our Attitudes Influence Behaviour? - 3 factors that explain attitude-behaviour relationships: 1. attitudes influence behaviour more strongly when they do not go against our own inner convictions  Theory of planned behaviour: our intention to engage in a behaviour is strongest when we have a positive attitude toward that behaviour 2. attitudes have a greater influence on behaviour when we are aware of them and when they are strongly held 3. general attributes are better at predicting general classes of behaviour and specific attitudes are better at predicting specific behaviours 1 Does our Behaviour Influence Our Attitudes? - Theory of cognitive dissonance: people strive for consistency in their cognitions. o When 2 or more cognitions contradict one another the person experiences an uncomfortable state of tension called cognitive dissonance, and the person must change their cognitions or add new cognitions - counterattitudinal: behaviour that is inconsistent with our attitudes - self-perception theory: we make inferences about our own attitudes by observing how we behave - Both these theories predict that counterattitudinal behaviour will produce a change in attitude Persuasion The communicator: - commuicator  message  audience - Communicator credibility: how believable the communicator is o Based on expertise and trustworthiness - communicators who are attractive, likeable and similar to us are more effective The message: - Two-sided refutational approach: most effective especially when an audience initially disagrees with a message or is aware that there are two sides to the issue (less bias) The audience: - Central route to persuasion: occurs when people think carefully about the message and are influenced because they find the arguments compelling (lasts longer, deeper foundation and better predictor of future behaviour) - Peripheral route to persuasion: occurs when people do not scrutinize the message, but are influenced mostly by other factors such as attraction or emotional appeal > SOCIAL INFLUENCE The Mere Presence of Others: - the presence of others energizes performance, except for on learning tasks - Social facilitation: increased tendency to perform one’s dominant response (what we usually do) in the mere presence of others o difficult and complex tasks: make errors o simple and better learned: perform correctly Social Norms - social norms: shared expectations about how people should think, feel, and behave - social role: norms that characterizes how ppl in a given social position should behave Conformity and Obedience - conformity: the adjustment of individual behaviour/thought to a group standard - Informational social influence: we follow opinions or behaviour of other people because we believe they have accurate knowledge and what they are doing is right - Normative social influence: conformity motivated by gaining social acceptance and avoiding social rejection Factors the Affect Conformity 2 Group size: - conformity increased from 5 to 35% as group size increased from 1 to 4 or 5 confederates Presence of a dissenter: - When one person disagrees ppl are more likely to remain independent from the group, reducing participants conformity Factors that Influence Destructive Obedience - Milgram Remoteness to the victim - Greater obedience when learner was out of sight - Dropped 40% when learner was in sight Closeness and legitimacy of the authority figure - When authority figure is close and legitimate obedience increased Cog in a wheel - Obedience increases when someone else does the “dirty work” Compliance Techniques - Norm of reciprocity: the expectation that when others treat us well we should respond kindly to them - Door-in-the-face technique: a persuader makes a large request expecting you to reject it and then presents a smaller request - Foot-in-the-door technique: a persuader gets you to comply with a small request first and later presents a larger request - Lowballing: a persuader gets you to commit to some action and then before you actually perform the behaviour they increase the cost of it Crowd Behaviour and Deindividuation - Deindividuation: a loss of individuality that leads to disinhibited behaviour - Anonymity to outsiders: the individual is less identifiable to people outside the group, which reduce feelings of accountability and increase risk of anti-social actions Group Influences on Performance and Decision Making - Social loafing: performing less effectively when thought to be working with others o More likely to occur when… • People believe that individual performance within the group is not being monitored • The task/goal has less value or meaning to the person • The group is less important to the person • The task is simple and the person’s input is redundant with that of other group members - collective effort model: on a group task, ppl will put effort forth only to the extent that they extent they expec
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