INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY
MODULE 1: PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT
Personality descriptions can be measured in several methods:
1. Interview Data
2. Trait Reports, ratings by other people
4. Physiological measures
5. Responses on projective tests & objective self-self-report measures
6. Personality Scales and Self-Ratings
Now using social media we can use it as a medium for self-expression and make identity claims
on how he/she behave. We then make judgments on personality based on identify claims.
Identity claims have greater control and greater chance for self-expression due to entirety of
control of what to author and self-identity. Personality impressions based from personal websites
are good personality assessors vs. traditional methods. Observers form clear coherent
impressions about author… and most likely right
Recall that a test must be:
1. Reliable – consistency of measurement.ATest that measures stable personality trait
should be stable to same individual (test-retest reliability).All professionals should also
interpret something the same way (interjudge or inter-rater reliability)
2. Validity – test actually measures intended personality variable.Allows us to predict
variable influenced by personality variable being measured.
Can obtain info about person’thoughts, feelings, and states as well as info about current/past
relationships experiences and behaviours
Structure interviews are used to collect data/ make psychiatric diagnosis which contains set of
specific questions administered to every participant. Standardized situation so that interviews
response can be interpreted and compared in presence of same stimuli. Interview not just records
what they say but also how they say it including appearance, voice, speech, facial expressions
etc. Attitudes can be inferred from behaviour.
Valuable for direct contact. Limitations
- Characteristics of interviewer may affect responses
- Validity of info depend of interviewee’s desire to cooperate, respond and report
accurately what interviewer assess
- Some data may be valid, others not.
Essential for psych needs to observe for admissions and research
Devise explicit coding system that contains behavioural categories of interest. Train observers
until high interjudge reliability to assess behave and provide valuable info about frequency and
when condition occur under what conditions Requires precision in dining behave of interest and conditions under what they occur. You need
to ask questions about why that target the measuring differences in personality characteristics
and identify potential situational causes of their behaviour.
Remote Behaviour Sampling
Researchers and clinicians can collect samples of behave from respondents as they live their
daily lives. Used to observe in unobservable events, (i.e. emotion reactions). Computerized
device carried by respondents beep to record current thoughts, feelings / behave, Report kind of
situation to collect long time of info. Research detects patterns etc.
Objectives measures with standard sets of question with a scoring key
- Ability to collect from many people at same time, fact all people respond to same items
and ease of scoring
- Disadvantage: Respond untruthfully… special scales detect tendency to respond to
socially acceptable manner of oneself or avoid negative image.
- Two approaches to developing questions:
o Rational approach – items based on theorists conception of personality trait to be
measured (what introverts what self-statements can I make)
NEO-PI… measures give personality traits