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Chapter 11

Psychology Chapter 11 Motivation and Emotion.docx

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Psychology 1000

Psychology Chapter 11: Motivation and Emotion Motivation--> process that influences the direction, persistence, and vigour of goal-directed behaviour Perspectives of Motivation • Instinct Theory and Evolutionary Psychology o Instinct--> inherited predisposition to behave in a specific and predictable way when exposed to a particular stimulus; have a genetic basis as they are found universally, do not depend on learning and have a survival value to organism o These theories have little evidence to support them and they rely on circular reasoning o Propose that many "psychological" motives have evolutionary underpinnings that are expressed through the actions of genes o From this perspective, the adaptive significance of behaviour is key to understanding motivation • Homeostasis and Drive Theory o Homoeostasis--> state of internal physiological equilibrium that the body strives to maintain o Maintaining homeostasis requires a sensory mechanism for detecting changes in the internal environment, a response system that can restore equilibrium and a control centre that receives info from sensors ad activates response system o The control centre has a set point (a constant state that it wants to keep your body at) o Homoeostasis regulation involves learned behaviours too o Drive theory--> physiological disruptions to homeostasis produces drives (states of internal tension that motivates an organism to behave in ways to reduce tension); example, hunger o Though arguable for drive theory as some people behave in ways that increase tension such as watching horror movies and skipping meals • Incentive and Expectancy Theories o Incentive --> environmental stimuli that "pull" an organism to a goal (ex. a good grade); something that we want not biologically need (ex. drug usage) o Focuses on attention on external stimuli that motivates behaviour; drives and incentives are linked o Expectancy theories explain why some people respond differently to the same incentive o Expectancy x value theory--> goal-directed behaviour is jointly determined by two factors: • the strength of the person's expectation that particular behaviour will lead to a goal • the individual value of the goal (called the incentive value) • Brings this equation: Motivation = expectancy x incentive value o Extrinsic motivation--> performing activity to obtain external reward or to avoid punishment o Intrinsic motivation--> performing activity for its own sake o Overjustification hypothesis--> giving people extrinsic rewards to perform activities that they intrinsically enjoy, may "overjustify" that behaviour, decreasing intrinsic motivation • Psychodynamic and Humanistic Theories o View motivation within a broader context of personality development and functioning, but take radically different approaches o Freud--> behaviour is a result from a never-ending battle between unconscious impulses (struggling to be free) and psychological defenses (that struggle to keep impulses under control) • Energy from these unconscious motives is disguised and expressed through socially acceptable behaviours o Abraham Maslow--> believed that our striving for personal growth is ignored • Distinguished between deficiency needs (concern with physical/social survival) and growth needs (uniquely human and motivate us to develop our potential) • Proposed the concept of need hierarchy (a progression of needs containing deficiency needs at the bottom and growth needs at the top) • Once our basic needs are satisfied then we focus on higher level needs • Self-actualization --> the need to fulfill out potential; ultimate human goal • Critics believe that self-actualization is vague o Self-determination theory--> focuses on three fundamental psychological needs: • Competence--> reflects human need to master new challenges and perfect skills • Autonomy --> people experience their actions out of free choice without outside interference • Relatedness--> our desires to form meaningful bonds with others  People are most satisfy when they satisfy these three needs  If these needs are not met, then there are consequences for both psychological and physical well being Hunger and Weight Regulation • The Physiology of Hunger o Metabolism--> the body's rate of energy utilization • Basal metabolism--> the resting, continuous metabolic work of cells ( keep body in homeostasis) • Satiety--> state in which we no longer feel hungry as a result from eating o Body does monitor its immediate energy supplies but hunger does not necessary link to immediate energy needs ( evolutionary perspective--> disadvantage since an organism shouldn’t eat just when its energy supply starts to be low) o Many researchers believe that there is a set point- internal physiological standard- around body weight and fat ( body would try to maintain set point) o Hunger does not depend on an empty stomach; other signals trigger hunger • Glucose--> simple sugar that is a major source of fuel • Glucose is stored in liver and fat cells; is released when blood glucose concentrations are low • Creates drop-rise glucose pattern, which may contain info in how brain regulate hunger • When we eat, satiety signals appear (ex. stomach and intestine distension) • Even those who have their stomachs removed can experience these signals, due to neurotransmitters • CCK (cholecystokinin)--> neurotransmitter that is released by small intestine as food arrive to stomach that decreases eating o Signals that regulate general appetite and weight • Fat cells are not passive storage sites for fat; they actively regulate food intake and weight by secreting leptin(a hormone that decreases appetite and increases energy expenditure) • Leptin regulates appetite by increasing the potency of other signals • So as we gain fat, we have more leptin and in turn, we eat less • A gene called the ob gene normally directs fat cells to produce leptin; if gene is mutated then leptin is not secreted, no signal is given for the organism to stop eating and thus it becomes obese(daily injections of leptin can solve this problem) • Another problem could be when leptin production is fine but the brain receptors are insensitive to the leptin (mutation in db gene) ; they cannot detect the signal and thus becomes obese o Brain Mechanisms • Two regions in the hypothalamus regulate hunger and eating the most: lateral hypothalamus ( "hunger on" centre) and ventromedial hypothalamus ("hunger off" centre); however later discovered that they are not really "hunger on and off" centres • Paraventricular nucleus (PVN)--> cluster of neurons packed with receptor sites for various transmitters that stimulate or reduce appetite  One transmitter, neuropeptide Y, is a powerful appetite stimulant • Leptin reaches the hypothalamus and inhibits the activity of neurons that release neuropeptide Y into the PVN (appetite is reduced). This explains why we get so hungry when we are trying to lose weight as less leptin is secreted and thus more neuropeptide Y is released, increasing appetite • Psychological Aspects of Hunger o From a behavioural perspective, eating is positively reinforced by the good taste in food and negatively reinforced hunger reduction o Cognitively we develop an expectation that eating will be pleasurable (motivator to seek and consume food) o Attitudes, habits, and psychological needs also regulate food intake (ex. feel stuff but eat anyways so you don’t waste food) o Most women, conversely, try to restrict their food intake even though they are hungry ( stems from social pressure to look beautiful and thin) o Men's perspectives though view their body shape to be close to ideal so they are satisfied with their body shape while women's perceptions place pressure on them to lose weight o Objectification theory--> Western culture teaches women to view their bodies as objects ( increases body shame and anxiety, which in turn leads to eating restrictions and disorders) • Environmental and Cultural Factors o People are sensitive to environmental changes in stimuli (ex. portion size, number of people present during a meal, etc) o Food availability is the most obvious environmental regulator of eating; other factors that regulate eating are food taste and variety (buffet--> cafeteria diet) o Associate food with smell and sight of food (so whether we see or smell food determines if we want to eat or not) o Cultural norms affect when, how, and what we eat •Obesity o Heredity influences our metabolic rates and tendency to store energy as either fat or lean tissue o More than 200 genes have been identified as possible contributors to human obesity ( often a combined subset of genes than single gene variation) o Environmental as well as there is an abundance of fat, tasty, and inexpensive food available everywhere • Also culture supersizes menu items • Technological advances- decrease need for physical activity o Dieting and Weight Loss • Obese people have higher levels on insulin so more glucose is converted into fat • Substantial weight gain also makes it hard to exercise vigorously • Dieting slows down basal metabolism because the body responds to food deprivation with decreased energy expenditure • These factors deter people from dieting Sexual Motivation •Sex is often described as a biological "reproductive drive", yet people usually do not have sex to conceive children •Pleasure, then, is the key as evolution has shaped our physiology so that sex feels good • In reality, people engage in sex for a host of noble and not so noble reasons: to reproduce, to have pleasure, to express love, foster intimacy, build one's ego, fulfill a duty, conform to peer pressure, get over a broken relationship, and to earn money •Sexual Behaviour: Patterns and Changes o Although men and women have sex with a partner about equally often, men masturbate and fantasize about sex more often than women do o Males tend to have their first sexual intercourse experience 1-2 years earlier than females o Premarital intercourse is common in many countries; changing norms so that we have a sexual tendency at a younger age and delaying marriage have contributed to an increase of premarital intercourse •The Physiology of Sex o Sexual Response Cycle • Has four stages; people go through these stages when they are sexually aroused • Excitement phase--> arousal builds rapidly; blood flow increases; body swells (vasocongestion); vagina lubrication and muscle tension • Plateau phase--> respiration, heart rate, vasocongestion, and muscle tension triggers orgasm • Orgasm phase--> in males, rhythmic contractions of internal organs and semen projection; in females, orgasm involves rhythmic contractions of the outer third of the vaginas, surrounding muscles and the uterus • Resolution phase--> in males, followed after orgasm; physiological arousal decreases rapidly and genital organs return to normal state. During resolution, males enter a refractory period during which they are temporarily incapable of another orgasm; females may have multiple orgasms before resolution phase o Hormonal Influences • Hypothalamus plays a key role in sexual motivation; it controls the pituitary gland, which regulates the secretion of hormones called gonadotropins into bloodstream • Gonadotropins affect rate at which the gonads (testes in males and ovaries in females) secrete androgens and estrogens • Sex hormones have organizational effects that direct the development of male and female characteristics (as an embryo, you are have the potential into developing either testes and ovaries)  For a male, there is a sufficient supply of androgen that produce a pattern of genital, reproductive, brain and other organ development (prenatal)  During puberty, there is an increase in the release of sex hormones  For a female though, the absence of androgen= female (prenatal); during puberty, the release of sex hormones from the ovaries is on a cyclical basis that regulates menstrual cycle • Sex hormones also have activational effects that stimulate sexual desire and behaviour (begins at puberty)  For males, there is a relatively constant secretion of sex hormones and their readiness for sex is largely governed by the presence of a stimuli (ex. a receptive female)  For females, the hormone secretions follow a "estrus" cycle and they are sexually receptive only during periods of high estrogen secretion • In both genders, androgens appear to have a primary influence on sexual desire • Those who have their reproductive organs removed, have less androgen secretions and thus less sexual desire (however castrating a person may not guarantee preventing future rapes and some people still have sexual intercourse after castration) • The Psychology of Sex o Sexual Fantasy--> people who are more sexually active also tend to fantasize more • Illustrate how mental processes can affect physiological functioning o Psychological factors can also inhibit sexual arousal ( they do not have the desire to have intercourse even if they are sexually aroused) o Other people may desire sex but not be sexually aroused o Sexual dysfunction--> chronic, impaired sexual functioning that distresses a person (may be injuries, diseases, drug effects, etc) • Cultural and Environmental Influences o Cultural Norms --> depending on the culture, a person may be exposed to sexuality while some are sheltered o Environmental stimuli affects sexuality (ex. erotic portrayals of sex , a lover's caress, pornography) o Researchers want to know if there is a correlation between porn and sexual assaults (whether exposure to porn fosters sexual violence against women) • Social learning theory --> people learn through observations; through porn, men view sex as impersonal (that men are entitled to sex when they want and that women enjoy being dominated and coerced into sex); men who view
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