Textbook Notes (368,116)
Canada (161,659)
Psychology (4,889)
Psychology 1000 (1,620)
Dr.Mike (707)
Chapter 4

Psychology Chapter 4.docx

4 Pages
86 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 1000
Professor
Dr.Mike
Semester
Spring

Description
Psychology Chapter 4: Genes, Evolution, and Behaviour Genetic Influences • Both nature and nurture determines our behaviour • Genotype – genetic makeup • Phenotype- observable characteristics produced by the genetic makeup • Chromosome- tightly coiled molecule of DNA that is partly covered in protein • Genes- hereditary portion of the DNA in the chromosome • Alleles – alternative forms of a gene • Genes affect our body’s development and function through proteins (what DNA codes for) • Human Genome Project- mapping out the entire genome; discovers that there is less genes than expected; found that some genes arise from bacteria that inserted their genes into our ancestor • Recombinant DNA procedures- using certain enzymes to cut DNA into pieces and combine them with DNA of another organism (ex. bacteria) • Gene knockout-alter gene in a way that the gene will not carry out its normal function • Genetic engineering allows scientists to alter, duplicate, and potentially repair genes Dominant, Recessive and Polygenic Effects • Dominant- particular characteristic that will be displayed as long as one of the alleles have been inherited • Recessive- particular characteristic that is displayed if only both alleles are the same • Polygenetic transmission- when a number of gene pairs are combined to influence one phenotypic trait Behaviour Genetics Techniques • Heritability coefficient- the extent to which variation in a particular characteristic within a group can be attributed to genetic factors • Heredity vs heritability= passage of characteristics through generations vs the variation in a characteristic within a population can be attributed to genetic differences • Heritability only applies within a group, not to the differences between groups • If a characteristic has higher concordance/co-occurrence, in people who are more highly related to one another, then this points to a possible genetic contribution (especially if they grew up in different environments) • Adoption study- (based on the principle above); a person who was adopted is compared on some characteristics both with the biological and foster parents ( whoever is greater in similarities suggests that biological or environmental factors are more of an influence) • Twin studies- compare concordance rates between identical twins and fraternal twins; sometimes better results come from a study where two twins, who are separated from birth, are compared Genetic Influences on Behaviour • Both environment and genetics affect intelligence (the question is how do both interact to affect intelligence?) • Reaction range- the range of possibilities that the genetic code allows (ex. a person can inherit a range of potential intelligence; the environment factors determine where the person will fall on the range) • Differences of personality are believed to be caused by the specific differences in brain activity 5 • Five Factor Model (a personality trait theory): 1. Extraversion- Introversion = outgoing vs quiet 2. Agreeableness= cooperative vs antagonistic 3. Conscientiousness = responsible vs undependable 4. Neuroticism = worrying/anxious vs calm/well-adjusted 5. Openness to Experience = imaginative vs unreflective/ lack of curiosity Evolution and Behaviour • Evolutionary psychology seeks to understand how behavioural abilities and tendencies have evolved over time • Biologically based mechanisms allows us to r
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 1000

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit