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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 - Lecture Notes

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Psychology 1000
Derek Quinlan

Monday, October 17 th – Evolutionary Psychology: how behavior and tendencies have evolved in response to environmental demands ○ Personality traits in humans have survived because they help us achieve our overriding goals  Physical survival  Reproduction – Natural Selection ○ Darwin ○ Characteristics more likely to be preserved if they increase:  Likelihood of survival  Ability to reproduce ○ Some survive and reproduce more successfully than others in the current environment – How NOT to Think About Evolution ○ Genetic determinism  Your genes have unavoidable effects  Ex: both your parents are alcoholics  Do you feel? • A. You will be an alcoholic  genetic determinism says you will be • B. No way you will become an alcoholic ○ Social Darwinism  High society is the “most fit”  Fittest can suppress the less fit  “Survival of the fittest” – Movie: Chimps/Bonobos ○ Chimps  Feed in trees  Mothers and young are independent from the group  Sex is often and hurried  Males are sexually dominant ○ Bonobos  Feed on ground  Mothers and young travel together  Sex is pleasurable  Females band together to fight off unwanted sex – Survival & Reproduction Evolution and Behavior ○ Always keep in mind—survival and survival of the next generation (reproduction) ○ How do we accomplish this? 1.Mating preferences 2.Parental investment 3.Altruism 1. Kin selection 2. Reciprocal altruism 4.Aggression – (1) Mating ○ Clark & Hatfield (1989)—Attractive males and females approach strangers of the opposite sex, and ask one of the following three questions:  Would you go out on a date with me tonight? • 50% of males and females agreed to go out on a date  Would you come over to my apartment? • 6% females vs. 69% men agreed to the apartment visit  Would you go to bed with me tonight? • 0% females vs. 75% men agree to sex ○ Mating Systems  Polygyny • Females competed for • Males compete and mate many females • Females: high parental investment • Males: low parental investment  Polyandry • Males competed for • Opposite pattern to polygyny (rare)  Polygamy • Refers to both polygyny and polyandry  Monogamy • Females and males both have hig
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