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Chapter 14-16

Psych 1000 Chapter 14-16

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Psychology 1000
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog

CHAPTER 14 – PERSONALITY Aquarius (Jan 20-Feb 18) – strong social conscience, want to improve world Personality – relatively enduring ways of thinking/acting that describe responses to life situations Components of identity (distinguish person from others) Perceived internal cause (of behaviors) Perceived organization and structure (behaviors fit together meaningfully) PSYCHODYNAMIC PERSPECTIVE Look for causes of behavior in a dynamic interplay of inner forces that conflict with each other Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory (behavior is psychological, genetic and behavioral) St. Augustine: storage was limitless but don’t have entire access to it Adopted Helmholtz’s idea of mechanism determinism + French idea of dissociation + Darwin’s ideas Changes in Freud’s life accompanied changes in his views Brooke: we are dynamic, not just passive-receivers/reactors Started to work in interactive clinics -> studied neurology + speech pathology (coined “agnosia”) Went to medical school (8 years b/c learned a lot) but then went to study in Paris with Charcot Charcot was treating patients suffering from conversion hysteria (sudden symptoms) Symptoms related to repressed memories (re-experience traumatic memory = symptoms improve) :. An unconscious part of the mind exerts great influence on behavior Used hypnosis, free association (saying whatever comes to mind) and dream analysis Conducted extensive self-analysis based on his own dreams Published Interpretation of Dreams (poorly received at first, then sold well) Psychic Energy and Mental Events Psychic energy – powers the mind and constantly presses for direct/indirect release Mental events can be Conscious – mental events we are presently aware of Preconscious – events we’re unaware of but can be called into conscious awareness Unconscious – dynamic realm of wishes/ impulses that lies beyond our awareness Largest and most important Only revealed when impulses are discharged in some way (ex. dreams) Structure of Personality Id – exists totally within unconscious mind (1 structure to develop) Inner core of personality + only structure present at birth (relationship with ego) Source of all psychic energy + no direct contact with reality Pleasure principle – seeks immediate gratification or release (“want… take!”) Ego – functions primarily at a conscious level (2 structure to develop) Reality principle – tests reality to decide when/under what conditions the id can safely discharge its impulses and satisfy its needs Tries to delay gratification until conditions are safe/appropriate “Executive of the personality” -> id/superego/reality Purpose is to prevent anxiety (constant repression or flight mechanism) Reality anxiety (reality to hard to deal with) Moral anxiety (guilt) Neurotic anxiety (demands of id when ego is facing anxiety + can’t satisfy ID) Superego – moral arm of personality (3 structure to develop by age 4/5) Child internalizes society’s values through identifying with parents/explicit training Self control takes over from the external controls of reward/punishment Like the ego, superego controls instincts of id (especially sexual/aggressive impulses) Tries to delay gratification permanently (regardless of cost to person) Aren’t aware of superego until in conflict with the ego Conflict, Anxiety and Defense Struggle between id discharging instinctive energies vs. ego/superego’s opposing forces Anxiety reduced through realistic coping behaviors (fix problem through rational discussion) or Defense mechanisms – deny/distort reality (permit release of impulses from id) Repression – ego prevents anxiety-arousing impulses from entering consciousness Sublimation – repressed thoughts channeled into socially desirable behaviors Psychosexual Development Erogenous zones – pleasure-sensitive areas of body that id’s pleasure seeking tendencies focus on Fixation – state of arrested psychosexual development where instincts are focused on a particular psychic theme (potential deprivations/overindulgences) Research on Psychoanalytic Theory Experiment: think of 2 people, suppress one, person dreams more of suppressed person Concepts are ambiguous or difficult to define/measure Development of Psychoanalysis – Case of Anna O. Associated with Joseph Breuer Case of Anna O. (21, hysteria, paralysis, speech/vision disturbance, nausea, confusion) She reviewed her daily activities (very emotional -> some symptoms disappeared) Called “chimney sweeping” or a catharsis Breuer: if he hypnotized her -> asked her to express emotions, symptoms would improve Mental conflicts became expressed through physical symptoms Explained phenomenon of male hysteria + revealed use of hypnosis (people disapproved -> he left) Free Association Instead of asking questions, Freud encouraged patients to talk about their emotions Freud believed resistance connected to “repression of problem or anxiety provoking thoughts” “Motivated forgetting” to avoid anxiety (many repressed memories about sexual matters) Patients felt they were watching rather than re-experiencing their experiences/stories Interpretation of Dreams Dreams contained events of day that didn’t work out + provide a disguised solution Common symbols variable in meaning (ex. money = feces and journeys = death) Hypnosis -> free association -> enhanced by interpretation of dreams to get access to unconscious Psychosexual Stages (order of stages is invariant) Oral Pessimistic individual and passively dependent upon others for input (need praise) Introjection: suck vs. projection: bite Anal Controlling/Processing -> from passive to active (now or later) Adults: love money, defiant/stubborn, organize everything, don’t say much Phallic Oedipus attribution – used to explain changes in focus that children show parents Boy develops sexual feelings for mother (and hates father) -> fears castration Girl attached to father Superego established when phallic stage passed (then anxiety until sex) If don’t pass stage -> as long as I’m happy, doesn’t matter about other people Genital Normal: ensure that partner feels satisfied Evaluating Psychoanalytic Theory Research doesn’t support propositions, some untestable Reaction formation – produces exaggerated behaviors that are the opposite of the impulse Neo-Analytic and Object Relations Approaches Neoanalysts (Neo-Freudians) – psychoanalysts who disagreed with certain aspects of Freud’s thinking and developed their own theories (social/cultural factors play a role) Adler: humans motivated by social interest/superiority Jung: developed theory of analytic psychology Humans possess a collective unconscious of memories from history of human race Archetypes – inherited tendencies to interpret experience in certain ways Object relations – focus on images that people form of themselves/others as a result of early experience with caregivers HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE Humanists embrace a positive view that affirms inherent dignity/goodness of human spirit Emphasize central role of conscious experience + individual’s striving for self-actualization Bugental’s 6 Points of Humanistic Psychology 1. Denies descriptions of human functioning based on subhuman species 2. Meaning more important than method in choosing problems for study 3. Gives primary concern to man’s subjective experience (concern to his actions is second) 4. Constant interaction between science + application (trying to separate handicaps both) 5. Concerned with the individual, exceptional and unpredicted 6. Seeks what will expand man’s experience + rejects perspective of nothing-but thinking Cantril: Man requires satisfaction of his survival needs (Maslow) Human beings continuously seek to enlarge range/enrich quality of satisfactions Carl Rogers’s Self Theory Forces direct us toward self-actualization when they are not being blocked by environment The Self Self – an organized, consistent set of perceptions/beliefs about oneself Young children can’t distinguish between themselves and environment Self-consistency – an absence of conflict among self-perceptions Congruence – consistency between self-perceptions and experience Any experience inconsistent with our self-concept evokes threat and anxiety Adjust well by modifying self-concept or deny/distort experience “problem in living” People may behave in ways that lead others to respond to them in a self-confirming fashion Need for Positive Regard Need for positive regard – innate need for acceptance/sympathy/love from others/self Unconditional positive regard – child is inherently worthy of love from parents Conditional positive regard – depends on how child behaves Conditions of worth – dictate when we approve/disapprove of ourselves Fully functioning persons – achieved self-actualization (don’t hide behind masks) Research on the Self Self Esteem Self esteem – how positively/negatively we feel about ourselves From 15-18, men have higher self-esteem than women (but overall, same) Unrealistically high self-esteem = more vulnerable to ego threats Self-Verification and Self-Enhancement Motives Self-verification – people motivated to preserve self-concept by keeping self-consistency University students recalled consistent adjectives (attend to self-consistent info) Tendency to seek out self-confirming relationships with others Self-enhancement – people have a need to regard themselves positively Culture, Gender and the Self Americans listed personal traits vs. Japanese described themselves in social identity terms Gender schemas – organized mental structures that contain our understanding of appropriate attributes/behaviors appropriate for males and females Men develop individualistic self-concepts (women’s self-concepts more collectivistic) Evaluating Humanistic Theories Rogers measured discrepancies between clients’ ideal selves and perceived selves Discrepancy decreases as therapy proceeds Frontiers – Stressed by Success Success generates self-doubt/anxiety among those with low self-esteem Low self-esteem people less likely to express a desire to improve their mood Traits and Biological Perspectives Allport recorded all the words that could be used to describe personal traits Factor analysis allows for clusters of specific behaviors that are correlated to be formed Noted traits cannot be directly observed (based on inference from observed behaviors) Trait – readiness to respond in a specific way Stimuli equated through filter system (ex. communist phobia), which then create behaviors Allport’s Theory is idiographic Hierarchy Cardinal traits – few people have these but those who do are generally obsessed by them Ex. Machiavellianism vs. Chauvinism Central traits – consistent influence on person’s behavior (ex. neatness/sloppiness) Secondary traits that don’t have a broad influence on behavior and are expressed as preferences Eysenck’s Extraversion-Stability Model Eysenck proposed 2+1 basic independent (uncorrelated) dimensions Introversion-extroversion (social inhibition to socially active) Stability-instability or stability-neuroticism (high emotional stability to moodiness) Secondary traits shown around periphery of the circle (combinations of 2 dimensions) rd Later proposed 3 dimension psychoticism-self control (non-conforming/creative to controlled) Cattell’s 16 Personality Factors (Factor-Analytic Trait Theory) Surface traits – traits that to a casual observer seem to go together Source traits – basic underlying structures that provide coherence to personality + explain behavior Resulted in personality questionnaire most widely employed by many cultural settings/US army Five Factor Model (6 facets) 5 “higher order” factors are universal to human species Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism Biological Foundations of Personality Traits Optimal level of biological arousal in the brain Extreme introverts are over-aroused (brains too electrically active so try to reduce arousal) Extreme extroverts are under-aroused (need frequent stimulation or bored) Introverts more responsible to punishment vs. extroverts more responsive to rewards Bad b/c prison filled with extroverts who don’t want punishment Stability of Personal Traits Personality traits – enduring behavioral predispositions (some stability over time/across situations) Introversion/extroversion, optimism/pessimism, and temperamental traits stable over time Difficult to predict personality traits b/c Personality traits interact with other traits/characteristics/situations Importance of traits vary per person Self monitoring – people differ in tendency to tailor behavior to situation High in self-monitoring = attentive to situational cues/adapt easily (act differently) Extreme self-monitors = behavioral chameleons Low in self-monitoring = act primarily in terms of own internal beliefs (act same) Neuroscience of the Big Five Deckersbach: measured brain glucose metabolism with a PET scan Negative correlation between Neuroticism scores and activity in left insular cortex Positive correlation between Extraversion and areas within left/right orbitofrontal cortex Social Cognitive Theories Social cognitive theorists – combined behavioral + cognitive perspectives to stress interaction of human thinking with social environment that provides learning experiences Reciprocal determinism – the person, person’s behavior + environment all influence one another Julian Rotter Likelihood we engage in a behavior is influenced by Expectancy – our perception of how likely it is that certain consequences will occur Reinforcement value – how much we desire or dread the outcome we expect Internal-external locus of control – belief about degree of personal control we have over our lives Albert Bandura Human agency – humans are active agents in their own lives (self-reflective + self-regulatory) Intentionality (we plan/modify our intentions) Forethought (we anticipate outcomes/set goals) Self-reactiveness (modify our goals/monitor our progress) Self-reflectiveness (evaluate own motivations/goals) Self Efficacy Self efficacy – beliefs concerning ability to perform behaviors needed to achieve outcomes High = confidence in ability to do what it takes to overcome obstacles 4 determinants Performance attainments (past performance in similar situations shape beliefs) Observational learning (observing others’ behaviors and outcomes) Verbal persuasion (others’ messages affirm/downgrade our abilities) Emotional arousal (anxiety or fatigue) Strong predictors of future performance Research Foundations – Albert Bandura One of the most influential psychologists of the modern era Hypothesis: behavior isn’t only controlled by environmental stimuli + behavior’s consequences Experiment: children reward themselves for their performance after watching models do the same Results: children adopted a criterion they had observed and applied it to their own behavior Systematic Goal Setting to Increase Self-Efficacy Set performance goals with time spans (not outcome goals) that can be measured Walter Mischel Consistency paradox – expect/perceive high level of consistency but actual consistency is very low Cognitive-affective personality system (CAPS) – personal + situational characteristics matter If then behavioral consistencies – consistency in behavior (found within similar situations) Evaluating Social Cognitive Theories Strong scientific base (brings together behavioral and cognitive) + can be measured Structured interviews – contain set of specific questions administered to every participant Create standardized situation so that all interviewees’ responses can be compared Limitations: characteristics of interviewer may affect how person responds to question Behavioral assessment – explicit coding system containing behavioral categories of interest (train observers to show high levels of agreement) Remote behavior sampling – computerized device beeps respondents randomly (then gather data) Personality Scales Objective/people may lie (so validity scales detect responses in socially desireable manners) Rational approach – items based on theorist’s conception of personality trait are measured Used to develop the NEO-PI Empirical approach – items chosen b/c previous research shown that items were answered differently by groups of people known to differ in the interested personality characteristic Used to develop Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) Projective Tests When presented with ambiguous stimulus, interpretation of stimulus must come from within Rorschach Inkblots – 20 inkblots (5 black/white and 5 color) Thematic Apperception Test – series of pictures derived from paintings/drawings Problem: different examiners interpret same response differently So developed Comprehensive System with scoring criteria (good test-retest stability) Objective measures of personality generally have better reliability and validity than projective tests Personality Theory Two major approaches Idiographic – extensive studies of individuals Nomothetic – studies of groups and broadly shared characteristics Greek philosophers typed personalities according to 4 basic types 1. Melancholic – sad, anxious, pessimistic, gloomy 2. Choleric – irritable, short tempered, readily angered 3. Phlegmatic – sluggish, dull, calm, controlled, boring 4. Sanguine – cheerful, easygoing, slow to anger Sheldon’s more recent theory 3 types of somatypes (body shapes) and their related personality categories 1. Endomorphs (soft and round) – viscertoni Love of food/comfort, social, easygoing, agreeable 2. Mesomorphs (hard and square) – somatonia Desire for power and dominance, aggressive/assertive 3. Ectomorphs (thin and fragile) – cerebretonia Self-conscious, private, over-reactive Personality Theory and Personality Assessment Psychodynamic theorists favor projective techniques Humanistic theorists favor self-report measures Social cognitive researchers favor behavioral assessments Behavioral geneticists/trait theorists favor pencil-and-paper tests (ex. MMPI and NEO-PI) Biological researchers favor physiological measures CHAPTER 15 – STRESS, HEALTH AND COPING Multiple sclerosis (MS) – neurological disorder from immune system attacking myelin sheath Demyelinated neuron can’t transmit action potentials (lack of coordination/paralysis) Chronic = symptoms get worse (not terminal but shorter life expectancy) Relapse remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) – mild version of MS (symptoms come and go) Genetic predisposition + triggered by environment (ex. diet/stress/trauma/lack of sunshine) Canadians have the highest rate of MS Nature of Stress Stress can be viewed as a stimulus (stressor), response or organism-environment interaction Stress (organism-environment interaction) – cognitive appraisals, physiological responses, or behaviors that occur b/c of a perceived imbalance between situational demands and resources Stressors Stressors – specific kinds of eliciting stimuli that place demands on us that force us to adapt Greater the imbalance between demands + resources = more stressful a situation is Micro-stressors (hassles) vs. catastrophic events (affect many) vs. major negative events (victim) Life event scales – quantify the amount of life stress a person has experienced over a time Appraisal Process 1. Appraisal of demands of the situation (primary appraisal) 2. Appraisal of resources available to cope with it (secondary appraisal) 3. Judgments of what the consequences of the situation could be 4. Appraisal of personal meaning (what the outcome means for the person) Chronic Stress General adaptation syndrome (GAS) – physiological response pattern to strong/prolonged stressors (Selye) with 3 phases Alarm reaction – sympathetic nervous system activated + stress hormones released Cortisol – triggers an increase in blood sugars + oxygen (can function when stressed) Fight or flight response Parasympathetic nervous system reduces arousal Resistance – body’s resources continue to be mobilized (can function with the stressor) How long body can last depends on general heath/social support (eventually ends) Exhaustion – body’s resources are dangerously depleted due to stressor persisting too long Increased vulnerability to disease (more severe stress = sooner body is exhausted) Stress and Psychological Well-Being Rape trauma syndrome – women who have been raped find aftermath as stressful as the incident PVN controls eating while SCN controls kidney water absorption Inability to control glucocorticoid secretion = high insulin levels (obesity/diabetes/arteriosclerosis) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) – severe anxiety disorder due to traumatic events Reliving of events, numb, impulsive, “survivor guilt” (women more likely to suffer than men) Influenced by social support/presence of stresses/personal factors/existing mental health Stress and Illness Men at greater risk for heart disease vs. women at greater risk for asthma/migraines Secretion of stress hormones by adrenal gland -> reduces fat metabolism -> blockages in arteries Stress deteriorates hippocampus (affects learning/memory) + decreases immune function Stimulated rat pups recovered from stress faster in adulthood (mother will do same for her pups) Mild early life stress strengthens emotional/cognitive/hormonal resistance to stressors later in life Vulnerability and Protective Factors Vulnerability factors – increase people’s susceptibility to stressful events (ex. lack of support) Protective factors – environmental/personal resources that help people cope (ex. social support) Social Support Relation between social isolation and poor health stronger for men than women Social support protects against stress by enhancing immune system (more antigens produced) Emotional “purging” or disclosing traumatic experiences to others can improve health Focus on Neuroscience – Neuroscience of Social Support Social support may limit impact of a potential threat before we generate a stress response People with good friends feel less threatened Amygdala/anterior cingulate cortex involved Or can alleviate impact of stress after event has been appraised and a stress response is activated May respond normally to stress but cope/recover better Prefrontal cortex involved Both: high social support = low cortisol (stress hormone) = less brain activity Cognitive Protective Factors Hardiness – stress-protective factor containing commitment, control, and challenge Hardy people are committed/believe they are in control/see situation as an opportunity :. Situations are less stressful and can stimulate higher levels of performance Coping self-efficacy – belief that we can perform behaviors necessary to cope successfully Always specific to the situation (past success increases efficacy vs. failures decrease) When experience increase in self-efficacy while facing stress, immune system improves Optimism – optimists appraise themselves as being less helpless in the face of stress + adjust better Personality Factors Type A – pressured + demanding of people (competitive, negative emotions, heart disease) Type B – relaxed, agreeable, less sense of time urgency Type C – tend to bottle up negative emotions (prone to cancer) Conscientiousness has strongest link to physical health + longevity Religious belief can be good/bad (ex. find higher meaning in their loss + improved health) Psychological Reactivity Psychological toughness – relations between 2 hormones secreted by adrenal glands during stress Low level of corticosteroids (cortisol) + weak cortisol response when stressed High cortisol = increased vulnerability to bodily breakdowns Low level of catecholamines (epinephrine) + strong/quick catecholamine response Frontiers – Stress and Working Memory Mild/moderate uncontrollable stress shown to impair frontal cortex function If stress causes too great of an activation of PKC, neurons don’t work property Coping Strategies Problem-focused coping strategies – attempt to confront demands of situation/change situation to eliminate stress Emotion-focused coping strategies – attempt to manage emotional responses resulting from it Seeking social support – turning to others for assistance/emotional support when stressed Effectiveness of Coping Strategies Problem-focused coping strategies + seeking social support = favorable adjustment to stressors Emotion-focused strategies = poorer judgment/depression Some adaptive emotion-focused strategies (ex. learning relaxation skills) Controllability and Coping Efficacy FBI hostage experiment: uncontrollable condition (emotion-focused > problem-focused) Bottling up Feelings Expressing one’s traumatic emotions can have short-term benefits Having flexibility to express traumatic experiences or suppress is best Gender, Culture and Coping Men more likely to favor problem-focused coping (women seek social support) North Americans/Europeans problem-focused vs. Asian people emotion-focused/use social support Stress Management Modifying cognitive appraisal (most effective means) -> cognitive restructuring Learning coping strategies (ex. self-instructional learning = talk to yourself) Relaxation training (release of tension matched with trigger word and exhaling) Somatic relaxation can be applied at anytime during stressor once learned (better than meditation) Health Promotion and
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