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Chapter 9-12

Psych 1000 Chapter 9-12 Notes

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Psychology 1000
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog

Psych Chapters 912CHAPTER 9LANGUAGE AND THINKING 71799 Wild BoyVictor isolated from human contact1970 Genie locked in a roomvocabulary stop it and no morenot enough improvement1982 Dominique locked in a basement occasional visitorsquick progress in acquiring languageMental representationsimages ideas concepts and principles ex reading that makes humans uniqueLANGUAGELanguagesystem of symbolsrules for combining symbols to generate infinite meaningsHypothesis All organisms can relay info within species but only humans use languageCommon feature to all human languages rules for combining words into sentencesEx if but and are function wordsPsycholinguisticsstudy of psychological aspects of language ex understoodproducedacquiredAdaptive FunctionsBrain achieved present form 50000 years ago brain didnt change much but cognitive skills didHumans adopted more socially oriented lifestyle that helped with survivalreproduction41 Properties of All LanguagesSymbolicStructured symbols are arbitrarydog doesnt mean dogmeaning is agreed onGrammarset of rules that dictate how symbols can be combined to create meaningSyntaxrules that govern the order of wordsConveys MeaningSchematicsmeaning of words and sentencesGenerativeallows for DisplacementGenerativelysymbols can be combined to generate infinite messages with novel meaningDisplacementcan communicate about events and objects that are not physically presentStructure of LanguageSurface StructureDeep StructureSurface structuresymbols that are used and their order syntaxDeep structureunderlying meaning of symbols semanticsHierarchical StructurePhonemesmallest unit of speech sound in a language that signals a difference in meaningElementary building blocks ex th a t form that40 in EnglishInfants vocalize entire range of phonemes regardless of culturelater forgetMorphemessmallest units of meaning in a languageEx dog log ball and pre un ed ous sDiscoursesentences combined into paragraphsconversations highest levelPhonemes pleyMorphemes playWords playersPhrasesSentenceDiscourseUnderstanding and Producing LanguageBottomUp Processingindividual elements of stimulus combined to form unified perceptionBrain recognizesinterprets patterns of stimuli detected by sensory systemRecognize words directly perceiving visual patterns or indirectly translating visual patterns into auditory codesTopDown Processingsensory information interpreted with existing knowledgeexpectationsSpeech segmentationperceiving where each word begins and endsUse context Pollack and Pickett experiment with university studentsPragmatics Social ContextPragmaticsknowledge of practical aspects of using language topdownLanguage Functions the Brain and Sex DifferencesBrocas area LH frontal lobeword processingarticulationWernickes area rear portion of temporal lobespeech comprehensionDamage to 1 areas have aphasiaspeech comprehensionproduction impairmentMen who suffer from LH strokes more likely to get aphasiaRossells experimentmen language stored primarily in LH women in bothVisual cortexrecognizing written wordsAcquiring a First LanguageBiological FoundationsBetween 612 months infants discriminate only sounds specific to their native tongueLanguage acquisition devices LADinnate biological mechanism that contains general grammatical rules universal grammar common to all languages ChomskySocial Learning ProcessesChilddirected speechhigh pitched intonation parents use to talk to infants universalSkinner childrens language development governed by positive reinforcementLanguage acquisition support system LASSfactors in environment that facilitate language learning BrunerBilingualismnd2 language best learnedspoken when during sensitive period of childhood before 7Vocabulary can be learned but grammarsyntax depend on early acquisitionLambert bilingual children show superior cognitive processesreadingperceptual tasksChildren entering into new language group learn better if in bilingual educational settingsIs Earlier BetterPossible critical period ending in childhoodearly teensJohnsonNewport experiment on university students from ChinaKorea to USEarly arrivalslate arrivals both had similar exposure times to English
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