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Chapter 11

Chapter 11- Motivation and Emotion.docx

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Western University
Psychology 1000
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog

Chapter 11­ Motivation and Emotion Motivation- a process that influences the direction, persistence, and vigour of goal-directed behaviour PERSPECTIVES ON MOTIVATION INSTINCT THEORY AND EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY Instinct- an inherited predisposition to behave in a specific and predictable way when exposed to a particular stimulus • Have a genetic basis, found universally among all species, do not depend on learning, have survival value for organism • Behaviour geneticists seek to establish how strongly heredity accounts for differences among people in many aspects of motivated behaviour (e.g., tendencies to be outgoing or antisocial) • Many “psychological” motives have evolutionary underpinnings that are expressed through the action of genes HOMEOSTASIS AND DRIVE THEORY Homeostasis- a state of internal physiological equilibrium that the body strives to maintain • Maintenance requires: o A sensory mechanism for detecting changes in the internal environment o Response system that can restore equilibrium o Control centre that receives information from the sensors and activates the response system • Can involve learned behaviours (e.g., when we’re hot, we may not only sweat, but seek a cool drink and shade) Drive theory (“Push”)- of motivation, physiological disruptions to homeostasis produce drives—states of internal tension that motivate an organism to behave in ways that reduce this tension • Applied to aspects of motivation, such as regulation of hunger, thirst, body temperature, weight and sleep- INCENTIVE AND EXPECTANCY THEORIES Incentives (“Pull”)- represent environmental stimuli that motivate behaviour • Incentives + drives = linked • Stimuli with high incentive value can motivate behaviour, even in the absence of biological need (e.g., dessert after meal) • Incentive theories strongly applied to drug abuse • Typically more related to classical conditioning Expectancy x value theory (expectancy theory)- proposes that goal-directed behaviour is jointly determined by 2 factors: (1) The strength of the person’s expectation that particular behaviours of the person’s expectation that particular behaviours will lead to a goal (2) Incentive value- value that the individual places on the goal Motivation= expectancy x incentive value Extrinsic motivation- performing an activity to obtain an external reward, avoid punishment Intrinsic motivation- performing an activity for its own sake—b/c its enjoyable or stimulating (e.g., a hobby) *Overjustification hypothesis- giving people extrinsic rewards to perform activities that they intrinsically enjoy may “overjustify” that behaviour and reduce intrinsic motivation PSYCHODYNAMIC AND HUMANISTIC THEORIES • Along with conscious mental processes, unconscious motives and tensions guide how we act and feel Abraham Maslow- key motive: our striving for personal growth *Deficiency needs – concerned with physical and social survival *Growth needs- uniquely human and motivate us to develop our potential Need hierarchy- a progression of needs containing deficiency needs at the bottom and growth needs at the top Self- actualization- represents the need to fulfill our potential—the ultimate human motive • Critiqued because the concept of “self-actualization” is vague Self-determination theory (Edward Deci and Richard Ryan)- focuses on three fundamental psychological needs: (1) Competence- a human need to master new challenges and perfect skills. Motivates exploratory and growth- inducing human behaviour (2) Autonomy (self-determination)- satisfied when people experience their actions as a result of free choice without outside interference (3) Relatedness- our desire to form meaningful bonds with others **Relatedness and autonomy actually compliment each other Chapter 11­ Motivation and Emotion • The most positive psychological outcome results from a balance among the three needs HUNGER AND WEIGHT REGULATION THE PHYSIOLOGY OF HUNGER rd Metabolism- the body’s rate of energy (caloric) utilization, about 2/3 s of the energy we normally use goes to support basal metabolism, the resting, continuous metabolic work of body cells • “Short-term” signals that start meals by producing hunger and stop food intake by producing satiety (state where we no longer feel hungry as a result of eating) • “Long-term” signals based on how much body fat you have • These signals adjust metabolism and appetite to compensate for times when you overeat or eat too little in a short term Three points to consider: 1. Many believe that hunger occurs when we “run low on energy” and we feel “full” when immediate energy supplies are restored, but hunger is not necessarily linked to immediate energy needs 2. Homeostatic mechanisms are designed to prevent you for “running low” on energy 3. There is a set point (an internal physiological standard) around which body weight is regulated. Signals that Start and Terminate a Meal • Is hunger caused by “hunger pangs?” – muscular contractions of an empty stomach • Stomach contractions do correspond to subjective feelings of hunger, but hunger pangs don’t always depend on an empty stomach or any stomach at all! • Other signals help to trigger hunger: Glucose- a simple sugar that is the body’s major source of immediately usable fuel • After a meal, glucose is transported into cells to provide energy, but a large portion is transferred to liver and fat cells and converted into other nutrients and stored for later use • Drop-rise glucose pattern- when blood-glucose levels decrease and liver responds by converting stored nutrients back into glucose *Stomach and intestinal distention- satiety signals—the walls of these organs stretch as food fills them up, sending nerve signals to the brain • Nutrition-rich foods satiate us more quickly than an equal volume of less nutritious food • Chemical signals also satiate our hunger: the intestines respond to food by releasing hormones, peptides—that help to terminate a meal CCK (cholecystokinin)- a peptide that decreases eating, helps to regulate food intake. Released into bloodstream by the small intestine as food arrives from the stomach Signals that Regulate General Appetite and Weight Leptin- a hormone that decreases appetite. Fat cells regulate food intake and weight by secreting this hormone • As we gain fat, more leptin is secreted into the blood and reaches the brain, where receptor sites detect it • Influence neural pathways to decrease appetite and increase energy expidenture • “Background signal” – doesn't make us feel full, may regulate appetite by increasing the potency of these signals • Tell the brain: “There is plenty of fat tissue, so it’s time to eat less”  Ob gene (ob= obesity)- normally directs fat cells to produce leptin. Individuals with ob gene mutation lack leptin— as they gain weight, their brains do not receive message to stop eating  Db gene- mutation in this gene causes individuals to secrete too much leptin, and brain receptors are insensitive to leptin Brain Mechanisms • Two major brain regions play a role in regulating hunger and eating: lateral hypothalamus (LH) hunger “on” centre, and ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH)  hunger “off” centre Paraventricular nucleus (PVN)- a cluster of neurons packed with receptor sites for various transmitters that stimulate or reduce appetite *Neuropeptide Y- a powerful appetite stimulant Chapter 11­ Motivation and Emotion • Discoveries regarding leptin and PVN help to explain why we become hungry when trying to loose weight When leptin reaches the hypothalamus inhibits the activity of neurons that release neuropeptide Y into the PVN, therefore appetite is reduced. When fat is lost, less leptin is secreted, and therefor neuropeptide Y neurons become more active, increasing appetite PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF HUNGER • Eating is positively reinforced by the good taste of food and negatively reinforced by hunger reduction • Cognitively, we develop an expectation that eating will be pleasurable—important motivator to seek + consume food • Beliefs and conditioned habits may lead us to eat when we don’t feel hungry • People limit their food intake due to social pressures to conform to cultural standards of beauty • Trend for women to have to be leaner, thinner, and strive for “ideal” body type • University women overestimated how thin they needed to be to conform to men’s preferences, and men overestimated how bulky they need to be to conform to women’s preferences • Women’s perceptions place pressure on them to loose weight *Objectification Theory- Western culture teaches women to view their bodies as objects ENVIRONMENTAL AND CULTURAL FACTORS • People are very sensitive to changes in environmental stimuli, such as portion size, the number of people present during a meal, the amount that others eat and the variety of foods available • The most important variables that influence how much we eat: 1. Food availability—famine-struck countries limits food consumption, by contrast: abundant low-cost food contributes to high rate of obesity 2. Food taste and variety powerfully regulate eating. Good-tasting food positively reinforces eating and increases food consumption 3. Environmental stimuli—typically eat more when dining with other people than when eating alone b/c meals take longer. Cultural norms influence when, how, and what we eat OBESITY • Obese people eat to cope with stress or react more strongly than non-obese people to food cues, such as the aroma and appearance of food Genes and Environment • Heredity influences our basal metabolic rate and tendency to store energy as either fat or lean tissue • Genetic factors account for about 40-70% of the variation in body mass among women and among men • The environment also affects our susceptibility to obesity, culprits are: (1) abundance of inexpensive, high-fat food available almost everywhere, (2) cultural emphasis on getting best value—supersizing menu items, (3) technological advances that decrease the need for daily physical activity • High levels of dopamine in the brain’s “reward pathway” make some people sensitive to the rewarding properties of food o How genes and environment interact: The Pima Indians of Arizona—genetically predisposed to diabetes and obesity, yet their diet prevents them from doing this Dieting and Weight Loss • Being fat primes people to stay fat—by altering body chemistry and energy expenditure • Obese people generally have higher levels of insulin than people of normal weight—increases the conversion of glucose into fat • Weight gain makes it hard to exercise vigorously, dieting slows basal metabolism because the body responds to food deprivation with decreased energy expenditure • Health concerns motivate some dieters, but psychological and social concerns are the primary motivators for many others SEXUAL MOTIVATION Chapter 11­ Motivation and Emotion • A drive to reproduce does not explain why people masturbate, have oral sex, use birth control, and have sex into their 80s • Pleasure is the key reason why people engage in sexual activity- evolution has shaped our physiology so that sex feels good SEXUAL BEHAVOUR: PATTERNS AND CHANGES • Although men and women have sex with a partner about equally often, men masturbate and fantasize about sex more often than women do • Many adults with a partner still masturbate (men more than women) • Males have their first sexual intercourse experience one to two years earlier than females • Premarital intercourse has become more common in many countries over the past half-century • These premarital trends may be leveling off and possibly reversing—an increased emphasis on the depth of relationships and the crisis with AIDS and STIs THE PHYSIOLOGY OF SEX The Sexual Response Cycle Sexual response cycle- a physiological response to sexual stimulation that involves stages of excitement, plateau, orgasm and resolution: 1. Excitement phase- arousal builds rapidly. Blood flow increases to arteries in and around the genital organs, nipples, and women’s breasts, pooling and causing these body areas to swell (aka vasocongestion). • Penis + clitoris become erect, vagina lubricated, and muscle tension increases in body 2. Plateau phase- respiration, heart rate, vasocongestion, and muscle tension continue to build until there is enough muscle tension to trigger orgasm 3. Orgasm phase- • Males: Rhythmic contractions of internal organs and muscle tissue surrounding the urethra project semen out of the penis • Females: Rhythmic contractions of outer third of vagina, surrounding muscles, and the uterus 4. Resolution phase- • Males: Physiological arousal decreases rapidly, and genital organs and tissues return to their normal condition, enter a refractory period when they are temporarily incapable of another orgasm • Females: may have successive orgasms before onset of resolution phase Hormonal Influences • Hypothalamus plays a key role in sexual motivation—regulates pituitary gland, which regulates the secretion of hormones called gonadtrophins into the bloodstream o These hormones affect the rate at which the gonads secrete androgens (“masculine” sex hormones) and estrogens (“female” sex hormones) • Sex hormones have organizational effects that direct the development of male and female sex characteristics • If genetically male, the embryo forms testes about eight weeks after conception • Have activational effects that stimulate sexual desire and behaviour o These effects begin at puberty when individual’s gonads begin to secrete sex hormones o Males: have a relatively constant secretion of sex hormones, and their readiness for sex is largely governed by the presence of environmental mental stimuli (e.g., a receptive female) o Females: follow an “estrus cycle”—sexually receptive only during periods of high estrogen secretion o Sex hormones influence sexual desire • Androgens appear to have the primary influence on sexual desire • A baseline level of certain hormones (such as testosterone) appears necessary to maintain sexual desire THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SEX • Typically begins with desire and a sexual stimulus that is perceived positively Sexual Fantasy Chapter 11­ Motivation and Emotion • Illustrates how mental processes can affect physiological functioning • Fantasies may trigger genital erection and orgasm in some people—often used to enhance arousal during masturbation • Sexual fantasy is usually not a response to a dissatisfaction with one’s partner Desire, Arousal, and Sexual Dysfunction • Psychological factors can inhibit sexual arousal • People desire sex, but have trouble staying aroused • Sexual dysfunction – chronic impaired sexual functioning that distresses a person • Performance anxiety is another reason for sexual dysfunction CULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES • Psychological meaning of sex depends strongly on cultural contexts and learning Cultural Norms E.g., Marquesas Islands of French Polynesia—sexuality is permitted and encouraged vs. Inis Beag, Ireland—sex is taboo, nudity is abhorred, only infants can be completely naked • What is viewed as proper, moral and desirable varies a lot among cultures Arousing Envir
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