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Chapter 10

Chapter 10- Intelligence.docx

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Psychology 1000
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog

Chapter 10­ Intelligence • Intelligence is not something that has concrete existence; instead a socially constructed concept Intelligence- the ability to acquire knowledge, to think and reason effectively, and to deal adaptively with the environment INTELLIGENCE IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE • Sir Francis Galton and Alfred Binet set the stage for later attempts to measure intelligence and discover its causes SIR FRANCIS GALTON: QUANTIFYING MENTAL ABILITY • Hereditary Genius (1869) showed through study of family trees that eminence and genius seemed to occur within certain families • Developed measures of reaction speed, hand strength, and sensory acuity • Measure size of people’s skulls, believing that skull size reflected brain volume, and hence intelligence ALFRED BINET’S MENTAL TESTS Made 2 assumptions about intelligence: 1. Mental abilities develop with age 2. The rate at which people gain mental competence is a characteristics of the person and is fairly constant over time Mental age- the mental level (or age) at which a child is performing as determined by a “standardized interview” in which the child responds to a series of questions • This concept was expanded by William Stern, created the: Intelligence quotient (IQ)- the ratio of mental age to chronological age, multiplied by 100: IQ= (mental age/chronological age) x 100 • Currently: mental age no longer used b/c many of basic skills measured by intelligence tests are acquired at approx.. 16 years b/c of normal life experiences and schooling o Some intellectual skills show a decline at advanced ages o IQ based on a person’s performance relative to the scores of other people the same age, with a score of 100 corresponding to the avg. performance of that age group BINET’S LEGACY: AN INTELLIGENCE-TESTING INDUSTRY EMERGES • Lewis Terman created a revised version of Binet’s test called Stanford-Binet • Became prototype for Army Alpha and Army Beta testing  verbally oriented test that was used to screen large #s of army recruits for intellectual and non-verbal skills • New group tests of intelligence: Lorge-Thorndike Intelligence Test, and Otis-Lennon School Ability Test • Major competitor to Stanford-Binet, David Weschler’s Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), and the Wescheler Intelligence Scale for Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence  most popular individually administered intelligence tests in North America THE NATURE OF INTELLIGENCE Two major approaches in intelligence study: 1. THE PSYCHOMETRIC APPROACH: THE STRUCTURE OF INTELLECT Psychometrics- statistical study of psychological tests • Tries to identify and measure the abilities that underlie individual difference in performance Factor Analysis • Sought to identify the mental abilities of the human mind • Researchers administer diverse measures of mental abilities and then correlate them with one another • Reason that if certain tests are correlated highly with one another—if they “cluster” mathematically—then performance on these tests probably reflects the same underlying mental skill Factor analysis- a statistical technique that permits a researcher to reduce a large number of measures to a small # of clusters of behaviour or test scores that are highly correlated with one another • Allows us to infer the underlying characteristic that presumably accounts for the links among the variables in the cluster • Cannot answer what the two sets are measuring, can only identify the clusters for us • Must determine what the underlying clusters mean Chapter 10­ Intelligence • Two clusters are not completely unrelated to each other Is intelligence a general menteal capacity, or does it consist of separate and specific mental abilities?  The g Factor: Intelligence as General Mental Capacity • First advanced by Charles Spearman, observed that school grades in different subjects were almost always positively correlated but not perfectly, intelligence is determined by: o g-factor- general intelligence, a component of intellectual performance o Whatever special abilities might be required to perform that particular task • Many factors believe that the g-factor is the core of intelligence, matters as a predictor of both academic and job performance  Intelligence as Specific Mental Abilities • L.L Thurstone—concluded that human mental performance depends not on general factor, but on seven distinct abilities Primary mental abilities- spatial ability, perceptual speed, numerical ability, verbal meaning, memory, verbal fluency, and inductive reasoning • Educators find this notion more attractive/useful than general mental ability model Crystallized and Fluid Intelligence Broke down Spearman’s general intelligence into two distinct/related subtypes: Crystallized intelligence cg )- the ability to apply previously acquired knowledge to current problems o Good measures: vocabulary and info tests o Basis for expertise, depends on the ability to retrieve previously learned info + problem-solving schemas from long-term memory o Dependent on previous learning and practice Fluid intelligence (f )- the ability to deal with novel problem-solving situations where personal experience doesn’t provide a solution o Dependent on efficient functioning of central nervous system rather than on prior experience and cultural context o Can perceive relations among stimulus patterns and draw inferences from relationships o Requires abilities to reason abstractly, think logically, and manage info in short-term memory so that new problems can be solved on the blackboard of the mind st • We progress from using fluid to crystallized intelligence throughout our life: early in life encounter problems for 1 time, later on  experience makes us more knowledgeable, we call up appropriate info and schemas from long-term memory Carroll’s Three-Stratum Model: A Modern Synthesis Three-stratum model of cognitive abilities- establishes three levels of mental skills: general, broad, and narrow Top: g-factor that underlies most mental activity Middle: eight broad intellectual factors arranged from left to right in terms of extent to which they are influenced by g Bottom: nearly 70 highly specific cognitive abilities that feed into the broader second-stratum factors • Model encompasses virtually all known cognitive abilities and provides the most complete and detailed ma of the human intellect derived from the psychometric approach to intelligence Chapter 10­ Intelligence 2. COGNITIVE PROCESS APPROACHES: THE NATURE OF INTELLIGENT THINKING • Psychometric theories don't explain why people vary in these mental skills Cognitive process theories- explore specific info-processing and cognitive processes that underlie intellectual ability Triarchic theory of intelligence- addresses both the psychological processes involved in intelligent behaviour and the diverse forms that intelligence can take Three components that underlie intelligent behaviour: 1. Metacomponents- higher-order processes used to plan and regulate task performance o Include problem-solving skills such as identifying problems, formulating hypotheses, etc. o Fundamental sources of individual differences in fluid intelligence  intelligent people spend more time framing problems and developing strategies than do less intelligent people 2. Performance components- actual mental processes used to perform the task o Include perceptual processing, retrieving appropriate memories and schemas from long-term memory, and generating responses 3. Knowledge-acquisition components- allow us to learn from our experiences, store info in memory, and combine new insights with previously acquired info More than one kind of intelligence: three classes of adaptive problem solving: 1. Analytical intelligence- academically-oriented problem-solving skills measured by traditional intelligence tests 2. Practical intelligence- skills needed to cope w/ everyday demands and to manage oneself and other people efficiently 3. Creative intelligence- comprises the mental skills needed to deal adaptively with novel problems • Curriculum that teaches practical and creative skills as well as academic-based results in a great mastery of course material BROADER CONCEPTIONS OF INTELLIGENCE: BEYOND MENTAL COMPETENCIES • Intelligence has traditionally been viewed as mental competence; some think this is too limited Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences • Howard Gardner defines 8 distinct varieties of adaptive abilities 1. Linguistic intelligence- ability to use language well 2. Logical-mathematical intelligence- ability to reason mathematically and logically 3. Visuospatial intelligence- ability to solve spatial problems or to succeed in a field such as architecture 4. Musical intelligence- ability to perceive pitch and rhythm and to understand and produce music 5. Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence- ability to control body movements and skillfully manipulate objects (skilled dancer, athlete, surgeon) 6. Interpersonal intelligence- ability to understand and relate well to others 7. Intrapersonal intelligence- ability to understand oneself 8. Naturalistic intelligence- ability to detect and understand phenomena in the natural world, as a zoologist or meteorologist might 9. **extra** existential intelligence- philosophically oriented ability to ponder questions about meaning of one’s existence, life and death • Form of intelligence that is most highly valued w/in given culture depends on the adaptive re
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