Textbook Notes (367,976)
Canada (161,540)
Psychology (4,882)
Psychology 1000 (1,620)
Chapter 14

Chapter 14- Personality.docx

6 Pages
Unlock Document

Psychology 1000
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog

Chapter 14­ Personality • “Personality traits” characterize individuals’ customary ways of responding to their world • Consistency in traits becomes greater as we enter adulthood Personality – the distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking, feeling and acting that characterize a person’s responses to life situations • Have 3 characteristics: components of identity that distinguish that person from other people, caused primarily by perceived internal cause, and the perceived organization and structure THE PSYCHODYNAMIC PERSPECTIVE • Interplay of inner forces that often conflict with one another- focus on unconscious determinants of behaviour FREUD’S PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY • Believed that patients “conversion hysteria” were related to painful memories and feelings that were repressed • Unconscious part of the mind exerts a great influence on behaviour • Used hypnosis, free association, and dream analysis Psychic Energy and Mental Events Psychic energy- generated by instinctual drives, this energy powers the mind and constatntly presses for either direct or indirect release • Mental events may be conscious, preconscious or unconscious o Conscious: events we are presently aware of o Preconscious: memories, thoughts, feelings and images that we are unaware of at the moment o Unconscious: realm of wishes, feelings and impulses that lies beyond our awareness. Discharged via dreams, slips of tongue, or disguised behaviour The Structure of Personality Id- exists within the unconscious mind. Innermost core of personal, source of all psychic energy. Has no direct contact with reality, functions totally irrationally. • It operates according to the pleasure principle- seeks immediate gratification or release, regardless of rational considerations and environmental realitiesw Ego- functions at conscious level. • Operates according to reality principle- the ego’s tendency to take reality into account and to act in a rational fashion in satisfying its needs Superego- moral arm of the personality (develops by age 4-5) is the repository for what is “right” and “wrong,” and how the child “should” be • Strives to control impulses of the id (sexual and aggressive especially), tries to block gratification permanently • Tries to block gratification permanently Conflict, Anxiety, and Defence Defence mechanisms- unconscious processes by which the ego prevents the expression of anxiety-arousing impulses or allows them to appear in disguised forms Repression- the basic defence mechanism that actively keeps anxiety-arousing material in the unconscious • Repressed thoughts and wishes may be expressed indirectly Sublimation- completely masking the forbidden underlying impulses Psychosexual Development • Believed that personality is powerfully molded by experiences in the first years of life • Children pass through series of psychosexual stages where id’s pleasure-seeking tendencies are focused on erogenous zones (pleasure-sensitive areas of the body) • Deprivations or overindulgences can arise during these stages and result in a fixation where instincts are focused on a particular psychic theme Research on Psychoanalytic Theory • Study: David Wegner and colleagues have examined whether wishes suppressed during the day appear in dreams Chapter 14­ Personality o Results: students dreamed more often of suppressed targets than non-suppressed targets, consistent with the theory EVALUATING PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY • Criticized on scientific grounds—hard to test • Psychoanalytic theory is rejected because it cannot be effectively tested • Nonconscious processes that have been experimentally demonstrated are very different to what Freud proposed— there is a “kinder, gentler unconscious” Neoanalytic and Object Relations Approaches • Neoanalysts are psychoanalyst who disagree with certain aspects of Freud’s thinking and developed their own theories • Believed he stressed infantile sexuality too much, and that he laid too much emphasis on the events of childhood as determinants of adult personality o Alfred Adler: humans are inherently social beings who are motivated by social influence (the desire to advance the welfare of others)  Postulated a general motive of striving for superiority—drives people to compensate for real/imagined defects in themselves and to strive to be ever more competent in life o Carl Jung: Analytic psychology- believed that humans posses not only a personal unconscious based on their life experiences, but also a collective unconscious that consists of memories accumulated throughout the entire history of the human race  These are represented through archetypes- inherited tendencies to interpret experience in certain ways (i.e. image of a god, force of evil, hero, good mother, quest for self-unity and completeness) Object relations- the images or mental representations that people form of themselves and other people as a result of early experience with caregivers • Ex. The mother as kind or malevolent, father as protective or abusive become lenses through which social interactions are viewed • Study: Hankin and colleagues studied relationship b/w adult attachment dimensions and symptoms of emotional distress o Results: Avoidant and anxious-ambivalent attachment predicted depressive symptoms, anxious attachment predicted anxiety symptoms • Some forms of early attachment are associated with personality disorder among teens and adults HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE • Affirms the inherent dignity and goodness of the human spirit Self-actualization- total realization of someone’s human potential CARL ROGERS’S SELF-THEORY • Our behaviour is not a reaction to unconscious conflicts but a response to our immediate conscious experience of self and environment • The forces that direct behaviour are within us and when they are not distorted/blocked by environment, they can be trusted to direct us toward self-actualization Central to theory is the Self- an organized, consistent set of perceptions of and beliefs about oneself • Early in life, children cannot distinguish b/w themselves and their environment • Once self-concept is established, tendency to maintain it b/c it helps us understand ourselves in relation to the world • We have needs for: Self-consistency- absence of conflict among self-perceptions Congruence- consistency b/w self-perceptions • People choose to deny or distort their experiences to remove the incongruence, can lead to “problems in living” • People interpret situations in self-congruent ways, behave in ways that will lead others to respond to them in a self- confirming fashion • More inflexible people’s self-concepts are, the less open they will be to their experience and the more maladjusted they’ll become Chapter 14­ Personality The Need for Positive Regard Need for Positive (self) regard- an innate need to be positively regarded by others and oneself • Essential for healthy development Unconditional positive regard- communicates that the child is inherently worthy of love Conditional love- dependent on how child behaves Need for positive self-regard- we want to feel about ourselves Conditions of worth- these develop and dictate whether or not we approve/disapprove of ourselves • Conditions of worth similar to the “should” that populate Freud’s superego Fully functioning persons- Rogers’ term for self-actualized people who are free from unrealistic conditions of worth and who exhibit congruence, spontaneity, creativity, and a desire to develop still further RESEARCH ON THE SELF Self Esteem Self-esteem- how positively/negatively we feel about ourselves, very important aspect of personal well-being, happiness, and adjustment • People with high self-esteem are less susceptible to social pressure, have fewer interpersonal problems, happier with their lives, achieve at higher and more persistent level, more capable of forming satisfying love relationships • People with low self-esteem are prone to psychological problems • Men and women do not differ in overall level of self-esteem • Children develop a better self-esteem when parents communicate unconditional acceptance/love, establish clear guidelines for behaviour, and reinforce compliance while giving child freedom to make decisions and express opinions within those guidelines • Unstable/unrealistically high self-esteem may be dangerous to individual and society than low self-esteem—higher one’s self-esteem, the greater the vulnerability to ego threats Self-Verification and Self-Enhancement Motives Self-verification- people are motivated to preserve their self concept by maintaining self-consistency and congruence • People selectively attend to and recall self-consistent information • People have a tendency to seek out self-confirming relationships Self-enhancement- people have a need to regard themselves positively, research confirms a strong and pervasive tendency to gain and preserve a positive self-image • People show a marked tendency to attribute their successes to their own abilities/effort, but attribute failures to environmental factors Culture, Gender, and the Self • Individualistic cultures emphasize independence, collectivistic cultures emphasize connectedness between people and group goal achievements • Study: Americans more likely to list personal traits/abilities/dispositions as opposed to Japanese who described themselves in social identity terms Gender schemas- organized mental structures that contain our understanding of the attributes and behaviours that are appropriate and expected for males and females • Western culture: men emphasize individualistic self-concept, women are more collectivistic EVALUATING HUMANISTIC THEORIES • What matters most is how people view themselves and the world • Discrepancy between clients’ ideal selves (how
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 1000

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.