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Chapter 8

Chapter 8- Memory.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 1000
Professor
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 8­ Memory Memory- the processes that allow us to record and later retrieve experiences and information MEMORY AS INFORMATION PROCESSING • The mind as a processing system that encodes, stores, and retrieves information Encoding- getting information into the system by translating it into a neural code that your brain processes Storage- retaining information over time Retrieval- a way of pulling information out of storage when we want to use it THREE-COMPONENT MODEL 1. Sensory Memory Sensory memory- holds incoming sensory information just long enough for it to be recognized • Composed of different subsystems called sensory registers: o Iconic store- visual sense (Time course for visual sensory memory is very brief) o Echoic store- auditory sense (Lasts longer than iconic memory) 2. Short-Term/Working Memory Short-term memory- holds the information that we are conscious of at any given time Working memory- consciously processes codes, and ‘works’ on information  Memory codes- visual (mental image), phonological (sound), semantic (meaning of a stimulus), or motor encoding that stores information so it can be retained in short-term and long-term memory o The form of a memory code often does not correspond to the form of the original stimulus o Phonological codes play an important role in short-term memory  Capacity and duration o Can hold a limited amount of information at a time (7 +/- 2 items) o Chunking- combining individual items into larger units of meaning o Short-term memory lasts approx. 20 seconds o By rehearsing information, wse can extend its duration in short-term memory indefinitely:  Maintenance rehearsal- simple repetition of information  Elaborative rehearsal- focusing on the meaning of information or relating it to other things we already know • More effective in transferring information into long-term memory  Putting Short-Term Memory to ‘Work’ *Working memory-a ‘mental workspace’ that actively and simultaneously processes different types of information and interacts w/ long-term memory Divided into 4 Components: 1. Auditory working memory- maintain some information 2. Visual spatial working memory- “visuospatial sketchpad” allows us to temporarily store and manipulate images and spatial information 3. Episodic buffer- provides temporary storage space where information from long-term memory and from the phonological loop and/or visuospatial subsystems can be integrated, manipulated, and made available for conscious awareness 4. Central executive- control process that directs the action 3. Long-Term Memory Long-term memory- vast library of durable stored memories Serial position effect- recall is influenced by a word’s position in a series of items  when given a list of words, the beginning and ending words are most remembered • Primacy effect- superior recall of early words • Recency effect- superior recall of most recent words o Primacy effect due to the transfer of early words into long-term memory, whereas the recency is due to short- term memory ENCODING: ENTERING INFORMATION • The more effectively info is coded, the greater likelihood of retrieving it Chapter 8­ Memory EFFORTFUL AND AUTOMATIC PROCESSING *Effortful processing- encoding that is initiated intentionally and requires conscious attention *Automatic processing- encoding that occurs without intention and requires minimal attention LEVELS OF PROCESSING: WHEN DEEPER IS BETTER *Structural encoding- how something looks (shallowest form) *Phonological/Phonemic encoding- sounding something out *Semantic encoding- what something means Levels of processing- the more deeply we process info, the better it will be remembered EXPOSURE AND REHEARSAL • Simple repeated exposure to stimulus without stopping to think about it represents shallow processing • Rehearsal goes beyond exposure because we are thinking about the information Ex. Maintenance vs. Elaborative rehearsal ORGANIZATION AND IMAGERY • Imposing organization on a set of stimuli is an excellent way to enhance memory • Can enhance the meaningfulness of info and also serve as a cue that helps to trigger our memory for the information it represents Hierarchies and Chunking • Organizing info in hierarchy takes advantage of principle that memory is enhanced by associations between concepts • Does not reduce the amount of info to be remembered—it enhances understanding of how we proceed from top to bottom, each category can serve as a cue that triggers our memory for the associated items below *Chunking-combining individual items into a larger unit of meaning, widens the info-processing bottleneck caused by limited capacity of short-term memory Mnemonic Devices • Any type of memory aid, such as acronyms, hierarchies, chunking Visual Imagery Dual-coding theory- using both codes (verbal and non-verbal) enhances memory b/c the odds improve that at least one of the codes will be available later to support recall (two codes are better than one!) • Abstract concepts are easier to understand semantically HOW PRIOR KNOWLEDGE SHAPES ENCODING Schemas: Our Mental Organizers Schema- a “mental framework”—an organized pattern of thought about some aspect of the world • Form schemas through experience, and they can strongly influence the way we encode material in memory • How we perceive a stimulus shapes the way we mentally represent it in memory Schemas, Encoding and Expertise • Acquiring expert knowledge can be a process of developing schemas that help to encode info into meaningful patterns STORAGE: RETAINING INFORMATION MEMORY AS A NETWORK Associative Networks Associative network- a massive network of associated ideas and concepts • The lines in this network represent associations between concepts, with shorter lines indicating stronger associations *Spreading action of related concepts throughout the network Priming- the activation of one concept (or one unit of into) by another Neural Networks Neural network- each concept is represented by a particular pattern or set of nodes that becomes activated simultaneously • Multiple nodes distributed throughout the brain fire in parallel at each instant and spread their activation to other nodes, concepts and information are retrieved and thoughts arise TYPES OF LONG-TERM MEMORY Declarative and Procedural Memory Declarative memory- involves factual knowledge. Includes two subcategories: • Episodic memory- store of factual knowledge concerning personal experiences Chapter 8­ Memory • Semantic memory- general factual knowledge about the world and language, including words and concepts o Called declarative b/c to demonstrate our knowledge, we have to tell people what we know Procedural memory- reflected in skills and actions *Skills- motor and cognitive *Classically conditioned responses Explicit and Implicit Memory Explicit Memory- involves conscious or intentional memory retrieval *Recognition- requires us to decide whether a stimulus is familiar *Recall- involves spontaneous memory retrieval  you must retrieve the target stimuli/info on your own *Cued recall- hints are given to stimulate memory Implicit Memory- occurs when memory influences our behaviour without conscious awareness RETRIEVAL: ACCESSING INFORMATION Retrieval cue- any stimulus, whether internal or external, that stimulates the activation of info stored in long-term memory THE VALUE OF MULTIPLE AND SELF-GENERATED CUES • Having multiple, self-generated retrieval cues was the most effective approach to maximizing recall • Generating our own associations involves deeper, more elaborative rehearsal than does being presented with associations generated by someone else THE VALUE OF DISTINCTIVENESS • Distinctive stimuli are better remembered than non-distinctive ones Flashbulb Memory Flashbulb memories- recollections that seem so vivid/clear that we can picture them as if they were a snapshot of a moment in time • Most likely to occur for distinctive, positive or negative events that evoke strong emotional reactions • Accuracy of these memories fades over time CONT
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