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Chapter 12

Chapter 12- Development Over the Lifespan.docx

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Psychology 1000
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog

Chapter 12­ Development Over the Lifespan DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY: ISSUES AND METHODS Four areas of developmental research: 1. Nature and Nurture 2. Critical and sensitive periods: o Critical period- age range in which certain experiences must occur for development to proceed normally or along a certain path o Sensitive period- optimal age range for certain experiences, but if those experiences occur at another time, normal development will still be possible 3. Continuity vs. discontinuity- 4. Stability vs. change • Certain development functions: A. No change—ability present before/at birth remains relatively constant across lifespan B. Continuous change—ability not present at/very immature at birth that develops gradually, then remains constant C. Stages—ability progresses in changes, rapid shifts from lower level to higher D. Inverted U-shaped function—emerges after birth, peaks and disappears with age E. U-shaped function—present early in life, disappears temporarily and re-emerges later Cross-sectional design- a research design that simultaneously compares people of different ages at a particular point in time Longitudinal design- research that repeatedly tests the same cohort as it grows older Sequential design- repeatedly testing several age cohorts as they grow older PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT 3 Stages: 1. Germinal—first two weeks, fertilization of egg from sperm  Zygote- fertilized egg 2. Embryonic stage—end of second week- 8 week after conception, cell mass called embryo  Placenta (contains membranes that allow for nutrients to pass from mothers blood to umbilical cord) and umbilical cord (contains blood vessels that carry nutrients and oxygen to embryo and wsat products back from embryo to mother) develops  Bodily organs and systems begin to form 3. Fetus—lasts until birth- muscles become stronger GENETIC AND SEX DETERMINATION • Zygote formed (23 pairs of chromosomes) • Female—XX, Male—XY • Y-chromosome contains specific gene: TDF (Testis determining factor) gene- triggers male sexual development • Testes secrete androgens that direct a male pattern of organ development ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES Teratogens- environmental agents that cause abnormal prenatal development • Sometimes the placenta is unable to prevent harmful chemicals and diseases can pass through Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)- a group of severe abnormalities that results from prenatal exposure to alcohol (physical abnormalities, fine-and gross-motor impairments, poor adaptive functioning) • Relatively loud sounds elicited increases in fetal heart rate and body movements during the third trimester of pregnancy • Different response measures relate to different developmental functions, which leads to conflicting estimates of fetal sensory development • Fetuses also learn • Nature and nurture interact throughout pregnancy Chapter 12­ Development Over the Lifespan INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD THE NEWBORN Newborn Sensation and Perception Preferential looking procedure- a study type used by Fantz to research infants’ visual preferences • Newborn’s resolution threshold is approx.. 20/800 compared to adult acuity- 20/20 Newborn Learning • Learn rapidly, like novel stimuli Visual habituation procedure- the same stimulus is presented repeatedly until infant looking time declines Auditory habituation procedure- same sound stimulus is presented repeatedly until infant looking time declines • Rapidly learn to associate particular sounds with particular objects—including mother’s face and voice • Can learn through classical and operant conditioning and imitation SENSORY-PERCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT • Crude sesnsory-perceptual abilities improve rapidly • Not all perceptual development functions show improvement with age during infancy • Auditory pattern perception relatively advanced in young infancts—can detect changes in speech sounds that differentiate one word from another (phonemes) • Perceive music as adults do • Sensory-perceptual processes are excercised in the uterus, and they all operate at some level at birth PHYSICAL, BRAIN, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT Maturation- a genetically programmed, biological process that governs our growt Cephalocaudal principle- the tendency for physical development to proceed in a head-to-toe direction Proximodistal principle- principle that physical development begins along the innermost parts of the body and continues towards the outer parts The Young Brain • At birth- only 25% of its eventual weight • 6 months—50% of adult weight • Last area to develop is frontal cortex—vital to highest-level cognitive functions • Rapid brain growth slows in later childhood • 5 year olds’ brains have reached almost 90% of their adult size Motor Development Reflexes- automatic, “inborn” behaviours elicited by specific stimuli present at birth (i.e., breathing, sucking) • Certain reflexes has less obvious adaptive significance but illustrate the degree to which many complex motor acts are developed in the uterus • Some follow a U-shaped developmental function Environmental and Cultural Influences • Certain experiences influence physical and motor development (i.e., diet, enriched environment, physical touch, experience) 3 Points apply across realm of human development: 1. Biology sets limits on environmental influences (i.e., nutrition won’t make you grow taller) 2. Environmental influences can be powerful (i.e., impoverished environments can stunt growth) 3. Biological an environmental factors interact (i.e., enriched environments can enhance brain development) COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piaget’s Stage Model • Children’s thinking changes qualitatively with age • Cognitive development results from interplay of maturation and experience Chapter 12­ Development Over the Lifespan • Viewed children as natural-born ‘scientists’ who actively explore and seek to understand their world • Brain builds schemas (organized patterns of through and action) Assimilation- process by which new experiences are incorporated into existing schemas Accommodation- process by which new experiences cause existing schemas to change • Every time a schema is modified it helps to create a better balance, an equilibrium between environment and child’s understanding of it Stage Age Major Characteristics Sensorimotor Birth- 2 • Infants understand world through sensory and motor experiences • Achieve object performance • Emergence of symbolic thought Preoperation 2-7 • Symbolic thinking; child uses words and images to represent objects and experiences, al pretend play • Thinking displays egocentrism- difficulty in viewing the world from someone else’s perspective • Does not understand conservation- the principle that basic properties of objects (such as their volume, mass or quantity) stay the same even though their outward appearance may change Concrete 7-12 Operational • Child can think logically about concrete events • Grasps concepts of conservation and serial ordering Formal 12- • Adolescent can think more abstractly, logically and flexibly Operational onward s • Can form hypothesis and test them systematically Assessment of Piaget’s Theory Piaget’s universality principle • General cognitive abilities associated with Piaget’s four stages occur in the same order across cultures Early Understanding of the Physical World • Violation of expectation experiment- examined infants’ understand of basic concepts • Young infants understand more about how the physical world operates than Piaget gave them credit for Vygotsky: The Social Context of Cognitive Development • Sociocultural context interacts with the brain’s biological maturation Zone of proximal development- the difference b/w what a child can do independently and what they can do with assistance from adults/more advanced peers o Helps us recognize what children may be able to do by themselves o Emphasizes that people can help to ‘move’ a child’s cognitive development forward within limits dictated by the child’s biological maturation Information-Processing Approaches Information-search strategies • Older children able to search systematically for relevant information Processing speed, attention, and response inhibition • Speed with which children process information becomes faster with age • Children’s attention span and ability to inhibit impulsive responses to distracting stimuli also improve with age Working Memory and Long-Term Memory • Improves with age • Older children can retain and manipulate visuospatial info in working memory more effectively than younger children • More likely than younger children to use strategies to improve memory Chapter 12­ Development Over the Lifespan Continuity vs. Discontinuity • Cognitive development involves both processes Theory of Mind: Children’s Understanding of Mental States Theory of Mind- a persons’ beliefs about the mind and the ability to understand other people’s mental states • Children begin to develop this around 3-4 years including lying and deception and perspective taking and early word- learning Early Emotions and Emotion Regulation • 18 months—infants develop sense of self, can recognize themselves in mirror • Age 2- learn about performance standards and rules, display pride, shame, guilt Emotion regulation- processes that we evaluate and modify our emotional reactions • Emotional expressiveness and ability to regulate emotions become part of overall emotional competence Temperament Temperament- biologically based general style of reacting emotionally and behaviourally to the environment • Difficult infants most likely to develop emotional and behaviour problems during childhood • Temperament weakly-moderately stable during infancy • Shyness form part of a more general temperament called behavioural inhibition • Majority—early temperament does not predict how shy/outgoing they would be as children, except in cases where infants were highly inhibitive • Hard to predict how an infant/child will turn out • Temperament classifications vary depending on context Age Major Crisis First year Basic trust vs. basic mistrust 1-2 Autonomy vs. shame and doubt 3-5 Initiative vs. guilt 6-12 Industry vs. inferiority 12-20 Intimacy vs. isolation 20-40 Identity vs. role confusion 40-65 Generativity vs. stagnation 65+ Integrity vs. despair Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory Psychosocial stages- sequence of eight developmental stages proposed, each involves a different ‘crisis’ over how we view ourselves • Four crises during infancy and childhood • Model successfully captures several major issues that developing children confront Attachment Imprinting- sudden, biologically primed form of attachment—involves a critical period Attachment- strong emotional bond between children and primary caregivers—human infants do not automatically imprint on caregiver • First few years of life are a sensitive period when we most easily form a secure bond with caregivers that enhances our adjustment later in life The Attachment Process • Contact comfort –body contact with a comforting ob
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