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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 - Psychology: The Science of Behaviour

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Psychology 1000
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog

Chapter 1 - Psychology: The Science of Behaviour basic research. The quest of knowledge purely for its own sake. Goals are to describe how people behave and to identify the factors that influence or cause a particular type of behaviour. Research can be completed in labs or real-world setting applied research. Designed to solve specific practical problems. Often uses principles discovered through basic research to solve practical problems (ex: from Robber's Cave to the Jigsaw Classroom) jigsaw program. an applied research program in which knowledge gained from basic research on factors that increase and decrease intergroup hostility was translated into a cooperative learning program designed to reduce interracial hostility in racially integrated schools Goals of psychology (1) to describe how people and other animals behave (2) to explain and understand the causes of these behaviours (3) to predict how people and animals will behave under certain conditions (4) to influence or control behaviour through knowledge and control of its causes to enhance human welfare - psychologists consider potential causes at 3 levels of analysis: (a) biological (b) psychological (c) environmental 6 major perspectives characterize contemporary psychological thought: (1) biological (2) cognitive (3) psychodynamic (4) behavioural (5) humanistic (6) socio-cultural perspectives - mind-body problem - a debate as to whether or not the mind is a spiritual entity that is separate from the body or a part of our body's activities mind-body dualism. the philosophical position that the mind is a non-physical entity that is not subject to physical laws and cannot be reduced to physical processes; body and mind are separate entities monism. the philosophical position that mental events are reducible to physical events in the brain, so that "mind" and body are one and the same biological perspective. perspective that focuses on the role of biological factors in behaviour, including biochemical and brain processes as well as genetic and evolutionary factors national selection. any inheritable characteristic that increases the likelihood of survival will be maintained in the species because individuals having the characteristic will be more likely to survive and reproduce evolution psychology. focuses on role of evolution in development of behaviour and mental mechanisms. An organism's biology determines its behavioural capabilities, which determines its ability to survive sociobiology. an evolutionary theory of social behaviour that emphasizes the role of adaptive behaviour in maintaining one's gene in the species' gene pool behaviour genetics. the study of how behavioural tendencies are influenced by genetic factors cognitive perspective. the view that humans are information processors and problem solvers whose actions are governed by thought and planning. "Cogitare" is Latin for "to think" Origins of the cognitive perspective (1) structuralism - an early German school of psychology established by Wilhelm Wundt that attempted to study the structure of the mind by breaking it down into its basic components, thought to be sensations (2) functionalism - influenced by Darwin's evolutionary theory, which emphasized the importance of adaptive behaviour in helping organisms to respond successfully to their environment and survive - focused on the functions of consciousness (3) gestalt psychology - concerned with how elements o
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