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Chapter 14

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Psychology 1000
Ronald R Holden

Chapter 14PersonalityWhat is Personalitythe distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking feeling and acting that characterize a persons responses to life situations3 characteristics 1 components of identity 2 perceived internal cause 3 perceived organization and structureThe Psychodynamic Perspectivelook for the causes of behaviour in a dynamic interplay of inner forces that often conflict with one anotherFreuds Psychoanalytic Theoryinstinctual drives generate psychic energy which powers the mind and constantly presses for either direct or indirect release mental events may be conscious preconscious or unconscious conscious mental events that we are presently aware of most prominentpreconscious contains memories thoughts feelings and images that we are unaware of at the moment but that can be called into conscious awareness also most prominentunconscious a dynamic realm of wishes feelings and impulses that lies beyond our awareness biggest in size importanceFreudthe Structure of Personalitydivided personality into 3 separate but interacting structures id ego and superegoId unconsciousinnermost core of the personality only structure present at birth the source of all psychic energy no direct contact with reality and functions in a totally irrational mannerPleasure principle seeks immediate gratificationrelease regardless considerations and environmental realities indirectly influences reality through the egoEgo primarily consciousdevelops after birth direct contact with realityReality principle tests reality to decide when and under conditions the id can safely discharge its impulses and satisfy its needsExecutive of the personality balances demands of the Id demands of reality and constraints of the superegoSuperego all areas of the minddevelops at 45 years of age moral arm of personality contains values and ideals of society which are internalized through parentsselfcontrol morality over reality always trying to blockhinder gratification which can result in guilt shame embarrassment prideFreudConflict Anxiety and Defenceneverending struggle between the Id trying to discharge instinctive energy and the opposing forces generated by the egosuperegowhen ego confronts impulses or is faced with dangers from external sources this results in anxiety acts as a danger signal and motivates the ego to actFreudDefence mechanismwhen realistic strategies are ineffective at reducing anxiety unconsciously denies or distorts realityRepression primary an active defensive process through which anxiety arousing impulses or memories are pushed from the conscious into the unconscious mind may be expressed indirectly in dreams etcSublimation a repressed impulse is released in the form of a socially acceptable behaviourFreud believed that excessive reliance on defence mechanism was as primary cause of maladaptive or dysfunctional behaviourFreudPsychosexual Developmentchildren pass through a series of psychosexual stages during which the ids pleasureseeking tendencies are focused on specific pleasuresensitive areas of the body called erogenous zones resolving Oedipus complexpotential deprivations or overindulgences can arise during any of these stages resulting in fixationa state of arrested psychosexual development in which instincts are focused on a particular psychic theme very controversial little support that stages affect personality Research on Psychoanalytic TheoryFreud tested his ideas using case studies and clinical observations he opposed experimental research because these complex phenomena could not be studied under controlled conditionsa major shortcoming of psychoanalytic theory is that many of its concepts are ambiguous and difficult to operationally define and measureFreudEvaluating Psychoanalytic Theory
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