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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Textbook Notes

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Psychology 1000

Chapter Two Scientific Principles in Psychologyscience is an approach to asking and answering questions about the universe around usthere are other ways to learn such as through intuition reason familyfriends but science is different because there is the scientific methodpsychology was later to start using the scientific method than physists and chemists Scientific Attitudes scientists must be curious people with open mindsGathering Evidence Steps in the Scientific Processsee lecture notes example using the story of Kitty Genovese 1 identify question of interest why did no one help when kitty was being murdered in an attack lasting over 30 minutes2 Gather information and form a hypothesis IF multiple bystanders are present THEN a diffusion of responsibility will decrease each bystanders likelihood of intervening3 Test hypothesis by conducting research create an emergency in a controlled environment control the perceivedof bystanders measure ifhow quickly each participant helps the victim 4 Analyze data draw tentative conclusions and report findings data says that helping decreases as the number of bystanders increases if data didnt support hypothesis revise hypothesisprocedures and retest5 Build a body of knowledge ask further questions conduct more research develop and test theories theory of social impact Hindsight AftertheFact Understanding most common method to try to understand behavior in our everyday lifemain problem with relying on hindsight related past events can be explained in many creative reasonable and sometimes contradictory ways There is no sure way to determine whichif anyof the alternatives is correcthindsight can provide valuable insights Understanding Through Prediction Control and Theory Building understanding through prediction and control is a scientific alternative to hindsight understanding if we understand the cause of a given behavior we should be able to predict the conditions under which that behavior will occur in the futuretheory development is the strongest test of scientific understandinggood theories generate integrated network of predicitonsA good theory y Incorporates facts and observations within a single broad framework
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