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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Textbook Notes

9 Pages

Course Code
Psychology 1000

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Chapter Four Genetic Influencesphysical development including development of nervous system is passed on to us from our parents blueprintbiological characteristics set limits on our behavioral capabilities genes and environmental factors determine our behavior Nature AND nurture Chromosomes and GenesHippocrates suggested that semen contains not body parts but rather some sort of design for the formation of the offspringMendel showed that hereditary involves the passing on of the specific organic factors not a simple blending of parents characteristics Specific factors might produce visible characteristics in the offspring or they might simply be carried for possible transmission of another generationOffspring of one set of parents dont all inheret the same traits as is evident in the differences we see among brothers and sistersGenotype specific genetic makeup of an individual present from conception and never changePhenotype the observable characteristics produced by that genetic endowmentcan be effected by other genes and the environmentegg and spermbeginning of a new individualegg and sperm carry material of hereditary in the form of rodlike units called chromosomesChromosome a tightly coiled molecuele of deoxyribonucleic acid DNA that is partly covered by proteinDNA portion of chromosomes carries hereditary blueprint in units called genesIn humans every cell in the body except one type has 46 chromosomesSex cell only has 23 chromosomes23 from egg combines with 23 from sperm to form a new cell the zygote which has 46 chromosomesgenes within each chromosome occur in pairs so offspring receives one of each gene pair from each parentevery cell nucleus in your body has the genetic code for your whole bodyevery cell except for egg and sperm cells have 2 copies of each gene one from your mom and when from your dadalternative forms of a gene that produce diff characteristics are called allelesgenes code for production of proteinsthe estimated 70 000 diff types of proteins found in a human control the structure of individual cells and all the chemical reactions that go on within those cells whether they are reactions necessary to sustain the life of the cell or are changes induced only periodically by experience or maturation half of all genes target brain structure and functionindividual genes carry the code for specific protein and when the gene is activated the cell produces the specified protein
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