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Chapter 10

Psychology Chapter 10 Textbook Notes

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 1000
Professor
Terry Biggs

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thPsych Chapter 10 Notes January 19Intelligence the ability to acquire knowledge to think and reason effectively and to deal adaptively with the environment Intelligence in Historical Perspective y Contributions of Sir Francis Galton and Alfred Binet set the stage for later attempts to measure intelligence and discover its causes y Sir Francis Galton o Showed the study of family trees that eminence and genius seemed to occur within certain families o His research convinced him that eminent people had inherited mental constitutions that made them more fir for thinkingo He developed measures of reaction speed hand strength and sensory acuity o Even measured people skulls thinking that the brain volume reflected intelligence y Alfred Binet o Commissioned by public education to develop a test that was to become the forerunner of all modern intelligence tests o He was interested in solving a practical problem rather than supporting a theory o Made two simple assumptions about intelligenceMental abilities develop with ageThe rate at which people gain mental competence is a characteristic of the person and is fairly constant over time o Asked experienced teachers what sorts of problems children could solve at different agesUsed their answers to develop an interview to see if a child was performing at the mental level for their ageThe result of the testing was a score called the mental age o Concept of mental age was expanded by William Stern to provide a relative score for people of different chronological stages o Sterns intelligence quotient IQ the ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100If a child was performing at their age level had an IQ of 100 o Todays test no longer use the concept of mental age o Todays IQ is based on a persons performance relative to the scores of other people the same age Binets Legacy An Intelligence Testing Industry Emerges y Lewis Terman was intrigued by Binets work and revised the test o Became called the StanfordBinet y Army Alpha a verbally oriented test that was used to screen large numbers of US Army recruits for intellectual fitness y Psychologist David Wechsler developed a major competitor to the StanfordBinet o He developed a test for adults and children that measured both verbal and nonverbal abilities The Nature of Intelligence y Psychologists have used two major approaches in the study of intelligence o The psychometric approach attempts to map the structure of intellect and to discover the kinds of mental competencies that underlie test performancestudies the specific thought processes that underlie o The cognitive processes approachthose mental competenciesThe Psychometric Approach The Structure of Intellect y Psychometrics the statistical study of psychological tests y The psychometric approach to intelligence tries to identify and measure the abilities that underlie individual differences in performance o Tries to provide a measurementbased map of the mind The Factor Analysis y Researchers administer diverse measures of mental abilitiesand then correlate them with one another y If tests within a cluster correlate highly with one another but much less with tests in other clusters then these various test clusters probably reflect different mental abilitiesy Researchers hope to determine the number of test clusters and to use this information to infer the nature of the underlying abilities y Factor analysis reduces a large number of measures to a smaller number of clusters or factors with each cluster containing variables that correlate highly with one another but less highly with variables in other clusters The g Factor Intelligence as General Mental Capacity y The psychometric argument for intelligence as a general ability was first advanced by the British psychologist Charles Spearman o He observed that school grades in different subjects were almost always positively correlated but not perfectly o Also found the same to be true for different ypes of StanfordBinet intelligence test items o Concluded that intellectual performance is determined party by a g factor general intelligenceContended that because the general factor g factor curs across virtually all tasks it constitutes the core of intelligence
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