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Chapter 11

Chapter 11 - Motivation and Emotion

9 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 1000
Professor
Terry Biggs

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Chapter 11 Motivation and Emotion Motivation is a process that influences the direction persistence and drive of goaldirected behaviourPerspectives on MotivationInstinct Theory and Evolutionary PsychologyAn instinct is an inherited predisposition to behave in a specific and predictable way when exposed to a particular stimulus Instincts have a genetic basis are found universally among all members of the species do not depend on learning and have survival value for the organism Modern evolutionary psychologists believe that many motives have evolutionary underpinnings that are expressed through the actions of genes For example why are we such social creatures Presumably affiliation produced survival advantagessuch as shared resources or protectionthus over the ages the genes of affiliative people made up an increasing part of the human gene poolHomeostasis and Drive Theory Homeostasisstate of internal physiological equilibrium the body strives to maintain The bodys internal environment is regulated by homeostatic mechanismssensors detect bodily changes and send this information to a control centre which in turn regulates a response system that restores bodily equilibrium According to Clarke Hulls 1943 1951 drive theory of motivation physiological disruptions to homeostasis produce drives states of internal tension that motivate and organism to behave in ways that reduce this tension Drives such as hunger and thirst arise from tissue deficits eg lack of food or water and provide a source of energy that pushes the organism into actionIncentive and Expectancy TheoriesIncentives represent environmental stimuli that pull an organism toward a goalfor example to a student a good grade can be an incentive for studying Modern incentive theory emphasizes the pull of external stimuli and how stimuli with high incentive value can motivate behaviour even in the absence of biological need eg eating dessert even when there is no biological need for food after you have eatenA cognitive approach called expectancy x value theory proposes that goaldirected behaviour is jointly determined by two factors the strength of the persons expectation that particular behaviours will lead to a goal and the value the individual places on that goaloften called incentive value These two factors are multiplied producing motivationexpectancy x incentive valueExtrinsic motivationperforming an activity to obtain an external reward or avoid punishment Intrinsic motivationperforming an activity for its own sakebecause you find it enjoyable or stimulating
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