Textbook Notes (363,140)
Canada (158,217)
Psychology (4,731)
Psychology 1000 (1,558)
Chapter 9

Chapter 9 Review & Terms.docx

7 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Psychology 1000
Derek Quinlan

CHAPTER 9 – Language & Thinking Review - Human languages across the globe share the same underlying features. Language is symbolic and structured, conveys meaning, is generative, and permits displacement. Language has many adaptive functions, such as facilitating cooperative social systems and allowing people to transmit knowledge to one another. Scientists believe that humans have evolved an innate capacity for acquiring language. - The surface structure of a language refers to how symbols are combined; the deep structure refers to the underlying meaning of the symbols. Language elements are hierarchically arranged: from phoneme to morpheme to word phrases, and sentences. Discourse involves higher- level combinations of sentences. - Understanding and producing language—including pattern recognition of words and the hierarchical structure of language—involve bottom-up and top-down processing. - In infancy, babies can perceive all the phonemes that exist in all the languages of the world. Between 6-12 months of age, their speech discrimination narrows to include only the sounds specific to their native tongue. By ages 4-5, most children have learned the basic grammatical rules for combining words into meaningful sentences. - Language development seems to depend heavily on innate mechanisms that permit the learning and production of language, provided that the child is exposed to an appropriate linguistic environment during a sensitive period that extends from early childhood to puberty. - Although research findings are not entirely consistent, it appears that a second language is most easily mastered and fluently spoken if it is learned during a sensitive period that ranges from early childhood possibly through mid-adolescence. Bilingual children tend to perform better than monolingual children on a variety of cognitive tasks. - In general, it appears that when people acquire a second language early in life or learn it to a high degree of proficiency later in life, both languages share a common neural network.- Language influences what people think and how effectively they think. Expansion of vocabulary allows people to encode and process information in more sophisticated ways. - Researchers have attempted to teach apes to use hand signs or keyboard symbols to communicate in language-like fashion. At best, apes are capable of learning, combining, and communicating with symbols at a level similar to that of a human toddler. Skeptics question whether apes can learn syntax and generate novel ideas. - In deductive reasoning, we reason from general principles to a conclusion about a specific case. Inductive reasoning, in contrast, involves reasoning from a set of specific facts or observations to a general principle. Deduction is the strongest and most valid form of reasoning, because the conclusion cannot be false if the premises are true. Inductive reasoning cannot yield certainty. - Unsuccessful deductive reasoning can result from (1) failure to select the appropriate information; (2) failure to apply the appropriate deductive reasoning rules, particularly in novel situations; and (3) belief bias, the tendency to abandon logical rules in favour of personal beliefs. - Problem solving proceeds through a number of steps: (1) understanding the nature of the problem, (2) establishing initial hypotheses or potential solutions, (3) testing the solutions against evidence to rule out hypotheses that do not apply, and (4) evaluating results. - Problem-solving schemas are shortcut methods for solving specialized classes of problems. They are stored in long-term memory and can help to overcome the limitations of working memory. Expertise results from acquiring a range of successful problem-solving schemas through training and practical experience, as well as knowing when to apply them. - Algorithms are formulas or procedures that guarantee correct solutions. Heuristics are general strategies that may or may not provide correct solutions. Means-ends analysis is one commonly used heuristic. The representativeness heuristic is the tendency to judge evidence according to whether it is consistent with an existing concept or schema. The availability heuristic is the tendency to base conclusions and probability judgments on what is readily available in memory. Humans exhibit confirmation bias, a tendency to look for facts to support hypotheses rather than to disprove them; and they suffer from overconfidence, a tendency to overestimate their knowledge, beliefs, and decisions. - In some situations, divergent thinking is needed for generating novel ideas or variations on ideas. Functional fixedness can blind us to new ways of using an object or a procedure, thereby interfering with creative problem solving. In some cases, a period of incubation permits problem solving to proceed on a subconscious level while giving the problem solver psychological distance from the problem. - At the level of the brain, thoughts are patterns of neural activity. At the level of the mind, thoughts are propositional, imaginal, or motoric mental representations. - Concepts are mental categories, or classes, that share certain characteristics. Many concepts are based on prototypes, the most typical and familiar members of a class. How much something resembles the prototype determines whether the concept is applied to it. Propositional thought involves the use of concepts in the form of statements. - Knowledge acquisition can be viewed as a process of building schemas, which are mental frameworks. Scripts, which are one type of schema, provide a framework for understanding sequences of events that usually unfold in a regular, almost standardized, order. - Experts rely heavily on schemas that they have developed from experience. Compared with novices, experts have more schemas to guide problem solving in their field and are much better at recognizing when each schema should be applied. Schemas also enable experts to take greater advantage of long-term memory. - Wisdom represents a system of knowledge about the meaning and conduct of life. According to one model, wisdom has 5 major components: rich factual knowledge, rich procedural knowledge, an understanding of lifespan contexts, an awareness of the relativism of values and priorities, and the ability to recognize and manage uncertainty. - A mental image is a representation of a stimulus that originates outside the brain rather than from external sensory input. The objective, quantifiable study of mental imagery received a huge boost from research examining people’s ability to mentally rotate objects. - Mental images of objects seem to have properties that are analogous to the properties of actual objects (ex
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 1000

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.