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Chapter 10

Chapter 10 Review & Terms.docx

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Psychology 1000
Derek Quinlan

CHAPTER 10 – Intelligence Review - Intelligence is the ability to acquire knowledge, to think and reason effectively, and to deal adaptively with the environment. Because cultural environments differ in the skills most important for adaptation, cultural conceptions of intelligence may differ markedly. - Galton’s studies of hereditary genius and Binet’s methods for measuring differences in children’s mental skills were important historical milestones in the study of intelligence. - The psychometric approach to intelligence attempts to map the structure of intellect and establish how many different classes of mental ability underlie test performance. A newer approach, the cognitive processes approach, focuses on the specific thought processes that underlie mental competencies. - Factor analysis can be applied to correlations among test scores to identify clusters of measures that correlate highly with one another and therefore are assumed to have a common underlying factor, such as verbal ability or mathematical reasoning. - Spearman believed that intelligence is determined both by specific cognitive abilities and by a general intelligence (g) factor that constitutes the core of intelligence. Thurstone disagreed, viewing intelligence as a set of specific abilities. Thurstone’s position is best supported by observed distinctions between verbal and spatial abilities. - Cattell and Horn differentiated between crystallized intelligence, the ability to apply previously learned knowledge to current problems, and fluid intelligence, the ability to deal with novel problem-solving situations for which personal experience does not provide a solution. They argued that over our lifespan, we show a progressive shift from using fluid intelligence to using crystallized intelligence as we attain wisdom. - Carroll’s three-stratum model is based on re-analyses of hundreds of data sets. Mental abilities are represented at 3 levels, with general intelligence (g) at the apex and highly specific cognitive and perceptual skills at its base. Carroll’s model may be the most accurate psychometric representation of human cognitive abilities. - Cognitive process theories of intelligence focus on the elementary information-processing abilities that contribute to intelligence. Sternberg’s Triarchic theory of intelligence includes a components sub- theory that addresses the specific cognitive processes that underlie intelligent behaviour. - Sternberg and Gardner maintain that there are distinct forms of intelligence beyond the traditional concept. Sternberg differentiates between analytical, practical, and creative intelligence, and Gardner proposes 9 different kinds of intelligence. The theory of emotional intelligence refers to people’s ability to read and respond appropriately to others’ emotions, to motivate themselves, and to be aware and in control of their emotions. - Most modern intelligence tests, such as the Wechsler scales, measure an array of different mental abilities. In addition to a global, or full-scale, IQ, they provide scores for each sub-test and summary scores for broader abilities, such as verbal and performance IQs. Some recent tests are derived directly from theories of intelligence. The Kaufman scale provides separate scores for crystallized and fluid intelligence, and Sternberg’s STAT measures analytical, practical, and creative intelligence. - Achievement tests measure what has already been learned, whereas aptitude tests are assumed to measure potential for future learning and performance. Most intelligence tests measure combinations of achievement and aptitude, for it is difficult to separate past learning and future learning potential. - Three important standards for psychological tests are reliability (consistency of measurement over time, within tests, and across scorers), validity (successful measurement of the construct and acceptable relations with relevant criterion measures), and standardization (development of norms and standard testing conditions). - IQ scores successfully predict a range of academic, occupational, and life outcomes, including how long people live. Such findings indicate that intelligence tests are measuring important adaptational skills.- The Flynn Effect refers to the notable rise in intelligence test scores over the past century, possibly due to better living conditions, more schooling, or more complex environments. - In dynamic testing, standard test administration is followed by feedback and suggestions from the examiner and a re-taking of the test, thus allowing an assessment of how well the person profits from feedback and how intellectual skills might be coached in the future. Dynamic testing provides information that static testing does not, and re-test scores sometimes relate more strongly to criterion measures. - Intelligence testing in non-Western cultures is a challenge. One approach is to use tests that are not tied to any culture’s knowledge base. Another approach is to devise tests of the abilities that are important to adaptation in that culture. These culture-specific abilities may bear little relation to the mental skills assessed by Western intelligence tests. - Recent physiological evidence suggests that the brains of intelligent people may function more efficiently. Brain size is not significantly related to intelligence, but the neural networks laid down in the process of brain development may be extremely important. One current theory is that differences in brain plasticity may underlie intelligence. - Intelligence is determined by interacting hereditary and environmental factors. Genes account for between 50-70% of population variation in IQ. Shared family environment accounts for perhaps 1/4 to 1/3 of the variance during childhood, but its effects seem to dissipate as people age. Educational experiences also influence mental skills. Heredity establishes a reaction range with upper and lower limits for intellectual potential. Environment affects the point within that range that will be reached. - Intervention programs for disadvantaged children have positive effects on later achievement and life outcomes if they begin early in life and are applied intensively. They have little effect when applied after school begins or with middle- or upper-class children. - Heritability estimates of intelligence can vary, depending on sample characteristics. In impoverished families, shared environment was more important than genes, whereas the opposite was found in affluent families. Twin studies also show that heritability effects on intelligence increase in adulthood. - Cultural and ethnic differences in intelligence exist (though they may be narrowing), but the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors are still
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